Education

Schools were quickly organized in the concentration camps, but they suffered from crude facilities and lack of teaching materials. Instruction was given for nursery through high school, and adult education was offered. Trained teachers were in short supply, however, and uncertified Japanese Americans with college degrees often filled in. The War Relocation Authority (WRA) deliberately emphasized Americanization in the education program. Some found it painfully ironic to watch incarcerated youth recite the Pledge of Allegiance.

World War II (66)
Concentration camps (618)
Education (946)

946 items
Japanese Americans taking citizenship classes (ddr-densho-151-407)
img Japanese Americans taking citizenship classes (ddr-densho-151-407)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. Part of a class under the Adult Education Program at this War Relocation Authority center. It is composed of Issei and Kibei evacuees who are studying the Ideals of American Citizenship and the English language with which they are unfamiliar. There are 18 such classes, each averaging 20 volunteer …
Japanese Americans taking English language class (ddr-densho-151-406)
img Japanese Americans taking English language class (ddr-densho-151-406)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. Part of a class under the Adult Education Program at this War Relocation Authority center. It is composed of Issei and Kibei evacuees who are studying the Ideals of American Citizenship and the English language with which they are unfamiliar. There are 18 such classes, each averaging 20 volunteer …
Students studying in shade (ddr-densho-151-365)
img Students studying in shade (ddr-densho-151-365)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. An elementary school with voluntary attendance has been established with volunteer evacuee teachers, most of whom are college graduates. No school equipment is as yet obtainable and available tables and benches are used. However, classes are often held in the shade of the barrack building.
Students studying in shade (ddr-densho-151-362)
img Students studying in shade (ddr-densho-151-362)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. Young sixth-grade students studying their lessons in the shade of the barracks at this first voluntary elementary school.
Elementary school class (ddr-densho-151-361)
img Elementary school class (ddr-densho-151-361)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. These young evacuees are attending the first elementary school at this War Relocation Authority center. There are six grades with volunteer teachers and voluntary attendance.
Students studying in shade (ddr-densho-151-364)
img Students studying in shade (ddr-densho-151-364)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. An elementary school has been established with evacuee volunteer teachers, most of whom are college graduates. Attendance at this time is voluntary. No school equipment is as yet available and classes are also held outside the barrack building in the shade.
Students studying in shade (ddr-densho-151-363)
img Students studying in shade (ddr-densho-151-363)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. An elementary school has been established with volunteer evacuee teachers, most of whom are college graduates. Attendance at this time is voluntary. No school equipment is as yet available and available tables and benches are used. Classes are often held outside in the shade of the barrack building.
Japanese Americans studying in classroom (ddr-densho-151-367)
img Japanese Americans studying in classroom (ddr-densho-151-367)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. An elementary school with voluntary attendance has been established with volunteer evacuee teachers, most of whom are college graduates. No school equipment is as yet obtainable and available tables and benches are used.
Students in temporary classroom (ddr-densho-151-366)
img Students in temporary classroom (ddr-densho-151-366)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. An elementary school with voluntary attendance has been established with volunteer evacuee teachers, most of whom are college graduates. No school equipment is as yet obtainable and available tables and benches are used. However, classes are often held in the shade of the barrack building at this War Relocation …
Fourth grade class and teacher (ddr-densho-152-22)
img Fourth grade class and teacher (ddr-densho-152-22)
Evelyn Dell with her fourth grade students. Original caption: Close up view of teacher and pupils. Girl marked is, according to I.Q. test, smartest in class. Her I.Q. is 122. She's Ethel Tanaka; father is a dentist.
Fourth grade students (ddr-densho-152-20)
img Fourth grade students (ddr-densho-152-20)
A group of fourth grade students outside the Heart Mountain Elementary School building. Original caption: Mutsu Shimada, Melvin Kani, Kenneth Aratani, Franklin Kawanami.
End of school celebration (ddr-densho-152-32)
img End of school celebration (ddr-densho-152-32)
Third grade girls perform in the last day of school celebration.
End of school celebration (ddr-densho-152-33)
img End of school celebration (ddr-densho-152-33)
Japanese Americans watch the last day of school celebration.
Two teachers and a student (ddr-densho-152-23)
img Two teachers and a student (ddr-densho-152-23)
Two Heart Mountain Elementary School teachers with a nisei student. Original caption: "Margaret Bliss Beasley, a third grade girl, and Kay Kumai."
First grade students and teacher (ddr-densho-152-13)
img First grade students and teacher (ddr-densho-152-13)
Original caption: "Wanda Watson and several of her first graders."
First grade class and teacher (ddr-densho-152-37)
img First grade class and teacher (ddr-densho-152-37)
Heart Mountain Elementary School first grade class with teacher, Mrs. Christiansen.
End of school celebration (ddr-densho-152-30)
img End of school celebration (ddr-densho-152-30)
Members of the third grade class perform in the last day of school celebration.
Fourth grade students (ddr-densho-152-19)
img Fourth grade students (ddr-densho-152-19)
A group of fourth grade students outside the Heart Mountain Elementary School building.
Fourth grade boys (ddr-densho-152-18)
img Fourth grade boys (ddr-densho-152-18)
Fourth grade boys from Heart Mountain Elementary School play outside. Original caption: "Fourth grade boys. X = James Koshiyama scored high on I.Q. test. Scores 111. He's both small and young for grade 4."
Elementary school boys (ddr-densho-152-5)
img Elementary school boys (ddr-densho-152-5)
Boys from Evelyn Dell's fourth grade class play outside. (Written on back): "Boys from my room. Norman is the nicest boy - very intelligent and so well mannered."
Evelyn Dell in front of school building (ddr-densho-152-3)
img Evelyn Dell in front of school building (ddr-densho-152-3)
Evelyn Dell stands in front of the Heart Mountain Elementary School building where she worked as a fourth grade teacher.
Fourth grade class (ddr-densho-152-16)
img Fourth grade class (ddr-densho-152-16)
Fourth grade class with teacher, Evelyn Dell, pose in front of the Heart Mountain Elementary School building.
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