Naturalization

Unlike other immigrants to the United States, Japanese and other Asians were not permitted to become naturalized American citizens until 1952. Under existing laws, naturalization was limited to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." Despite many attempts by Japanese immigrants (Issei) to gain citizenship, they were usually rejected on the grounds that the Issei were neither white nor black. The 1922 Supreme Court case Ozawa v. U.S. cemented the status of the issei as "aliens ineligible to citizenship" once and for all. It wasn't until 1952 with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act that Issei were finally allowed to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

Immigration and citizenship (302)
Naturalization (130)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration Act of 1952, Naturalization Act of 1790, Ozawa v. United States, Tokutaro Slocum, Francis Walter

130 items
Fred Shiosaki Interview Segment 45 (ddr-densho-1000-190-45)
vh Fred Shiosaki Interview Segment 45 (ddr-densho-1000-190-45)
Helping parents obtain U.S. citizenship

This interview was conducted as part of a project to capture stories of the Japanese American community of Spokane, Washington. Densho worked in collaboration with the Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture.

Heiji and Chiyoko Kurakawa (ddr-csujad-8-34)
doc Heiji and Chiyoko Kurakawa (ddr-csujad-8-34)
Oral history interview with Heiji and Chiyoko Kurakawa. Information on the oral history project is found in: csuf_stp_0012A; Glossary in: csuf_stp_0014. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: FCPL Kurakawa, Heiji and Chiyoko
Momoyo Mizuki (ddr-csujad-8-91)
doc Momoyo Mizuki (ddr-csujad-8-91)
Oral history interview with Momoyo Mizuki. Information on the oral history project is found in: csuf_stp_0012A; Glossary in: csuf_stp_0014. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: FCPL Mizuki, Momoyo
Sada Yamamoto (ddr-csujad-8-100)
doc Sada Yamamoto (ddr-csujad-8-100)
Oral history interview with Sada Yamamoto. Information on the oral history project is found in: csuf_stp_0012A; Glossary in: csuf_stp_0014. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: FCPL Yamamoto, Sada
Arajiro Watari (ddr-csujad-8-98)
doc Arajiro Watari (ddr-csujad-8-98)
Oral history interview with Arajiro Watari. Information on the oral history project is found in: csuf_stp_0012A; Glossary in: csuf_stp_0014. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: FCPL Watari, Arajiro
Ben Tsutomu Nakagawa (ddr-csujad-8-49)
doc Ben Tsutomu Nakagawa (ddr-csujad-8-49)
Oral history interview with Ben Tsutomu Nakagawa. Information on the oral history project is found in: csuf_stp_0012A; Glossary in: csuf_stp_0014. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: FCPL Nakagawa, Ben Tsutomu
Naturalization certificate (ddr-densho-23-16)
doc Naturalization certificate (ddr-densho-23-16)
Sawano Tazuma and her husband Bunshiro operated the Tazuma Ten-Cent Store at 12th Avenue and Jackson Street in Seattle's Nihonmachi. The Tazumas were not allowed to become naturalized American citizens until 1952, when the Immigration and Nationality Act was passed. Sawano finally became a citizen in 1954 at the age of fifty-eight, thirty-five years after settling …
Naturalization certificate (ddr-densho-23-15)
doc Naturalization certificate (ddr-densho-23-15)
Certificate of naturalization for Bunshiro Tazuma, aged seventy. The landmark case Ozawa v. United States (United States Supreme Court, 1922) barred the Issei from becoming American citizens even though many had been permanent residents since the late 1800s. In 1952, the Immigration and Nationality Act was passed, and the Issei were finally allowed to become citizens.
Kay Kido Threw Her Trousseau Overboard to Become American (ddr-one-3-76)
doc Kay Kido Threw Her Trousseau Overboard to Become American (ddr-one-3-76)
November 5, 1953 issue of the Mt. Adams Sun, Volume XIX, Number 6. The newspaper contains an article on the front page titled "Kay Kido Threw Her Trousseau Overboard to Become American." The article is about the Kenjiro and Miyuki "Kay" Kida process for American citizenship and their experiences living in the United States.
Identification card (ddr-densho-34-133)
img Identification card (ddr-densho-34-133)
The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service issued this identification card after Frank Yoshito Kitamoto became a naturalized citizen of the United States on July 13, 1953.
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