Naturalization

Unlike other immigrants to the United States, Japanese and other Asians were not permitted to become naturalized American citizens until 1952. Under existing laws, naturalization was limited to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." Despite many attempts by Japanese immigrants (Issei) to gain citizenship, they were usually rejected on the grounds that the Issei were neither white nor black. The 1922 Supreme Court case Ozawa v. U.S. cemented the status of the issei as "aliens ineligible to citizenship" once and for all. It wasn't until 1952 with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act that Issei were finally allowed to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

Naturalization (122)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration Act of 1952, Naturalization Act of 1790, Ozawa v. United States, Tokutaro Slocum, Francis Walter

122 items
Identification card (ddr-densho-34-133)
img Identification card (ddr-densho-34-133)
The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service issued this identification card after Frank Yoshito Kitamoto became a naturalized citizen of the United States on July 13, 1953.
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 64 (September 9, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-52)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 64 (September 9, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-52)
""Mac' Told to K.O. Japan's War-Making Industries; Allied Council Chairman Attacks Soviet Obstruction" (p. 1), "Nisei Demand End of Japan Nationality" (p. 1), "GI-Japanese Bride Reports Help Naturalization Push" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 92 (November 18, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-254)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 92 (November 18, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-254)
"Hearings Set on Masaoka, Fujii Cases" (p. 1), "Soldier Brides Act Deadline Feb. 18, 1951" (p. 1) "U.S. Assures Aid to Needy Issei" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 33 (April 14, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-101)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 33 (April 14, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-101)
"Pacific Northwest Trade Helps Orient Recovery, NWA Aide Says" (p. 1), "House Will Hear Legislations on Naturalization April 19" (p. 1), "Orders Halt on Hearing Against CIO" (p. 1), "JACL to File Brief with Top Court to Back Takahashi in Fish Case" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 5 (January 15, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-172)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 5 (January 15, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-172)
"Hawaii Pushes ENI Measure" (p. 1), "Additional Claims Queries, Replies" (p. 1), "They'll Consider Equality Bill" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 99 (December 13, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-257)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 99 (December 13, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-257)
"House Approves Walter Measure" (p. 1), "JACL Calls Attention to Bias on FHA Homes for Veterans" (p. 1), "Fort Lincoln Cemetery Decides to Adopt Segregation Policy" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 3 (January 8, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-170)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 3 (January 8, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-170)
"House Receives Three Identical Bills for Equality in Naturalization" (p. 1), "Masaoka Signs Up As Lobbyist" (p. 1), "Truman Reaffirms Civil Rights Stand in Annual State of Union Message" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 36 (April 24, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-104)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 36 (April 24, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-104)
"Matsuoka Elected Chairman of Jackson Council" (p. 1), "Ex-Envoy to Japan Believes Time Ripe to Drop Ban on Japanese in Immigration, Naturalization Bill" (p. 1), "Hearings Open on H.R. 5004; Four Testify" (p .1),
Letter denying naturalization to Issei male (ddr-densho-126-2)
doc Letter denying naturalization to Issei male (ddr-densho-126-2)
Until 1952 U.S. law forbade people of Japanese ancestry from becoming naturalized citizens. This letter was sent to George Mitsutaro Yoshihara, an issei male who applied for U.S. citizenship in 1947.
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 43, No. 3 (July 20, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-29)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 43, No. 3 (July 20, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-29)
Selected article titles: "Claimants requested to refrain from writing Dep't of Justice for 60 days as all claims being reviewed under 1955 amendment" (p. 1), "Kibei fired as security risk in plea to Eisenhower" (p. 1), "Action unlikely on committee ok'd bill to return war vested property" (p. 1), "Renunciation law and segregation termed ...
Naturalization certificate (ddr-densho-23-16)
doc Naturalization certificate (ddr-densho-23-16)
Sawano Tazuma and her husband Bunshiro operated the Tazuma Ten-Cent Store at 12th Avenue and Jackson Street in Seattle's Nihonmachi. The Tazumas were not allowed to become naturalized American citizens until 1952, when the Immigration and Nationality Act was passed. Sawano finally became a citizen in 1954 at the age of fifty-eight, thirty-five years after ...
img "The graduation exercise of the Americanization School sponsored by Japanese Ancestral Society" (ddr-densho-259-394)
Front of photograph: "The graduation exercise of the Americanization School sponsored by Japanese Ancestral Society Portland, Oreg. May 28, 1953." Caption by Homer Yasui: "Group portrait of the Issei in the Portland area who graduated from the Americanization school, in preparation for taking their citizenship examinations."
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 43 (October 26, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-93)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 43 (October 26, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-93)
Selected article titles: "Those Seeking Changes in Forms Must Write" (p. 1), "Minidoka Camp Closes 9 Days Ahead of Schedule" (p. 1), "General Stilwell's Action Commended by Secy. Ickes" (p. 2), and "3 Govt. Departments: Remove or Modify Rules for Employment of Nisei" (p. 4).
Application for naturalization (ddr-densho-126-3)
doc Application for naturalization (ddr-densho-126-3)
U.S. law forbade people of Japanese ancestry from becoming naturalized citizens until 1952. This document is an application for naturalization filed by an issei male in 1947.
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 23 (June 7, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-23)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 23 (June 7, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-23)
Select article titles: "26,000 Japanese War Brides in U.S. Group Told" (p. 1); "Senate Committee Amends Claims Supplemental Appropriation Bill" (p.1 ); "Non-profit groups listed for 1st time as claim awardees" (p. 1); "JACL participates in Memorial Day Rites at Arlington Cemetery; sagging Nisei interest in war dead scored by D.C. JACLers" (p ...
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