Naturalization

Unlike other immigrants to the United States, Japanese and other Asians were not permitted to become naturalized American citizens until 1952. Under existing laws, naturalization was limited to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." Despite many attempts by Japanese immigrants (Issei) to gain citizenship, they were usually rejected on the grounds that the Issei were neither white nor black. The 1922 Supreme Court case Ozawa v. U.S. cemented the status of the issei as "aliens ineligible to citizenship" once and for all. It wasn't until 1952 with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act that Issei were finally allowed to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

Naturalization (122)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration Act of 1952, Naturalization Act of 1790, Ozawa v. United States, Tokutaro Slocum, Francis Walter

122 items
Identification card (ddr-densho-34-133)
img Identification card (ddr-densho-34-133)
The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service issued this identification card after Frank Yoshito Kitamoto became a naturalized citizen of the United States on July 13, 1953.
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 64 (September 9, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-52)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 64 (September 9, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-52)
""Mac' Told to K.O. Japan's War-Making Industries; Allied Council Chairman Attacks Soviet Obstruction" (p. 1), "Nisei Demand End of Japan Nationality" (p. 1), "GI-Japanese Bride Reports Help Naturalization Push" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 92 (November 18, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-254)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 92 (November 18, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-254)
"Hearings Set on Masaoka, Fujii Cases" (p. 1), "Soldier Brides Act Deadline Feb. 18, 1951" (p. 1) "U.S. Assures Aid to Needy Issei" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 33 (April 14, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-101)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 33 (April 14, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-101)
"Pacific Northwest Trade Helps Orient Recovery, NWA Aide Says" (p. 1), "House Will Hear Legislations on Naturalization April 19" (p. 1), "Orders Halt on Hearing Against CIO" (p. 1), "JACL to File Brief with Top Court to Back Takahashi in Fish Case" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 5 (January 15, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-172)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 5 (January 15, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-172)
"Hawaii Pushes ENI Measure" (p. 1), "Additional Claims Queries, Replies" (p. 1), "They'll Consider Equality Bill" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 99 (December 13, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-257)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 99 (December 13, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-257)
"House Approves Walter Measure" (p. 1), "JACL Calls Attention to Bias on FHA Homes for Veterans" (p. 1), "Fort Lincoln Cemetery Decides to Adopt Segregation Policy" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 3 (January 8, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-170)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 3 (January 8, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-170)
"House Receives Three Identical Bills for Equality in Naturalization" (p. 1), "Masaoka Signs Up As Lobbyist" (p. 1), "Truman Reaffirms Civil Rights Stand in Annual State of Union Message" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 36 (April 24, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-104)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 36 (April 24, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-104)
"Matsuoka Elected Chairman of Jackson Council" (p. 1), "Ex-Envoy to Japan Believes Time Ripe to Drop Ban on Japanese in Immigration, Naturalization Bill" (p. 1), "Hearings Open on H.R. 5004; Four Testify" (p .1),
Letter denying naturalization to Issei male (ddr-densho-126-2)
doc Letter denying naturalization to Issei male (ddr-densho-126-2)
Until 1952 U.S. law forbade people of Japanese ancestry from becoming naturalized citizens. This letter was sent to George Mitsutaro Yoshihara, an issei male who applied for U.S. citizenship in 1947.
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 43, No. 3 (July 20, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-29)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 43, No. 3 (July 20, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-29)
Selected article titles: "Claimants requested to refrain from writing Dep't of Justice for 60 days as all claims being reviewed under 1955 amendment" (p. 1), "Kibei fired as security risk in plea to Eisenhower" (p. 1), "Action unlikely on committee ok'd bill to return war vested property" (p. 1), "Renunciation law and segregation termed ...
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 22 (March 25, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-9)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 22 (March 25, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-9)
"Text of Masaoka's Speech : Clarifies Japanese-American Situation" (p. 1), "Seeks Linguists" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 32 (April 20, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-199)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 32 (April 20, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-199)
"ADC Fund Push Opens with Kickoff Luncheon" (p. 1), "Evacuation Claims Queries, Replies" (p. 2), "ADC to Ask Amendment to HR 199" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 47 (July 8, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-35)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 47 (July 8, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-35)
"Fights Use of Japanese in Job Classification" (p. 1), "ADC Receives New Version of H.R. 3999" (p. 1), "NVC Supports Measure on Citizenship" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 24 (March 13, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-94)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 24 (March 13, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-94)
"Center Blaze Sufferers Get Loss Claims" (p. 1), "Nisei War Memorial Army Raises $1,623 Here" (p. 1), "Union Membership Sought for Issei" (p. 2), "Fights Seizure of Alien's Land for War Claims" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 68 (August 23, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-237)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 68 (August 23, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-237)
"Walter Bill Runs into Confusion" (p. 1), "Travel Bureau Office in N.Y. Will Open Soon" (p. 1), "Sgt. I. Furukawa Killed in Action" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 13 (February 12, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-180)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 13 (February 12, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-180)
"Judd Bill Passed by House Unit Without Dissenting Vote" (p. 1), "Senate OK's Bill to Pay for Our Loss" (p. 1), "Tokuda's Eye Third N.W. Title as Basketball Tourney Nears; Fierce Fight for Crown Looms" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 46 (May 29, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-114)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 46 (May 29, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-114)
"Issei Urged to Fill Out First Papers" (p. 1), "2 Stowaways on Ship will be Deported" (p. 1), "Third Parley on U.S. Rights Ends in D.C." (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 56 (July 13, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-223)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 56 (July 13, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-223)
"B.C. Fishermen Disapprove of Biased Action" (p. 1), "Talks on ENI to be Heard" (p. 1), "Schmoe, Rev. Andrews to Leave this Week for Hiroshima City" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 31 (April 16, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-198)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 31 (April 16, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-198)
"Hopes Rise on Senate Approval of Judd's ENI Legislation" (p. 1), "Local ADC Fund Push of $5,000 Starts April 20" (p. 1),
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 24 (March 23, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-191)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 24 (March 23, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-191)
"Delay by Senate on ENI Bill Looms; New York Post Scribe Fears Road "Very Uncertain" (p. 1), "President Inks Contraband Bill" (p. 1), "Letter to CARE from Japan" (p. 1).
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