Associations and organizations
The Issei (Japanese immigrants) established cultural, business, and religious organizations that supported ethnic enclaves. This early form of networking served more than social and economic interests -- it became a substitute for the extended-family and village systems left behind in Japan. Christian and Buddhist neighborhood churches, Japanese language schools, and sports leagues allowed the Nisei (second-generation Japanese Americans) to participate in organized social activities as well as form peer networks.
Associations and organizations (289)