Expatriation/repatriation/deportation

From 1943 to 1946, over 20,000 Japanese Americans applied to leave the United States for Japan in a process called "repatriation" (for Issei as non-citizens) or "expatriation" (for Nisei as citizens). Some Issei considered repatriation preferable to remaining in a country that had long discriminated against them. For Nisei, who had rarely been to Japan, expatriation meant renouncing their U.S. citizenship. Some were pressured to do so by family members or extremists; others were bitter about their mistreatment by the government. In total, only 4,724 ended up leaving for Japan directly from the camps and many eventually returned to the U.S. Nearly all Nisei who wanted to were able to regain their citizenship, although the process was long and difficult.

World War II (13)
Resistance and dissidence (10)
Expatriation/repatriation/deportation (129)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Joe Kurihara

129 items
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 42 (June 17, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-30)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 42 (June 17, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-30)
"House Immigration Unit Favors H.R. 3566, JACL-ADC Reports" (p. 1) "54 Nisei Leave for Alaska Canned Salmon Work" (p. 1), "Vote for Claims Board Measure, Rep. Twyman Tells Colleagues" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 46 (May 29, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-114)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 46 (May 29, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-114)
"Issei Urged to Fill Out First Papers" (p. 1), "2 Stowaways on Ship will be Deported" (p. 1), "Third Parley on U.S. Rights Ends in D.C." (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 29 (April 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-196)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 29 (April 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-196)
"Issei, Nisei May Get Claims Forms for Lost or Damaged Articles" (p. 1), "Bill Gives Atty. - Gen More Power" (p. 1), "Shaft Honors War Dead of This Area" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 30 (April 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-99)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 30 (April 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-99)
"Canada Curbs on Japanese to Continue" (p. 1), "House Gets Few More Measures to Aid 3 Japanese Aliens" (p. 1), "Judd Urges Quick Amendment on Naturalization Bills" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 22 (March 25, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-9)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 22 (March 25, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-9)
"Text of Masaoka's Speech : Clarifies Japanese-American Situation" (p. 1), "Seeks Linguists" (p. 1)
The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 5 (April 6, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-10)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 5 (April 6, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-10)
Selected article titles: "Sentence Nine Draft Evaders" (p. 1), "Duplicate Forms Needed for Repatriation-Records" (p. 1), "Personnel Mess Fire Caused by Overheating" (p. 2), and "Groundwork Laid for Tule Lake Baseball Association" (p. 6).
The Newell Star, Extra (December 10, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-107)
doc The Newell Star, Extra (December 10, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-107)
Special publication titled "Justice Dept. Announces Policy on Repatriation."
Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-279)
img Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-279)
Original WRA caption: "Japanese repatriates embarking for Japan." Although the WRA caption specifically refers to repatriates, many Japanese Americans who left were citizens of the United States and therefore, expatriates.
Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-9)
img Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-9)
Caption in album: "Ge-Chan / Life in Japan after repatriation."
Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-6)
img Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-6)
Caption in album: "Pop & Taka / Life in Japan after repatriation."
Arthur Ogami Interview Segment 27 (ddr-densho-1000-154-27)
vh Arthur Ogami Interview Segment 27 (ddr-densho-1000-154-27)
Undergoing an interview prior to expatriation: questioned regarding possibly joining the Japanese Imperial Army
Richard E. Yamashiro Interview Segment 20 (ddr-densho-1000-333-20)
vh Richard E. Yamashiro Interview Segment 20 (ddr-densho-1000-333-20)
Arriving in Japan, witnessing the devastation

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Tom Akashi Interview Segment 44 (ddr-densho-1000-164-44)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 44 (ddr-densho-1000-164-44)
Life in Japan, postwar: working for a land reclamation project, then finding a job with a Japanese construction company as an interpreter
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 41 (ddr-densho-1000-164-41)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 41 (ddr-densho-1000-164-41)
Preparing for life in Japan: learning the language, feeling worried
Marion Tsutakawa Kanemoto Interview Segment 30 (ddr-densho-1000-148-30)
vh Marion Tsutakawa Kanemoto Interview Segment 30 (ddr-densho-1000-148-30)
Leaving for Japan on the SS Gripsholm, part of the U.S. government-sponsored "exchange"
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 25 (April 4, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-11)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 25 (April 4, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-11)
"Japan Pushes Tourist Plan for 1948, 1949" (p. 1), "Vancouver CLU Opposes Curbs Against Japanese Canadians" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 4 (January 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-3)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 4 (January 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-3)
"Sees Complications in Return of Nisei Stranded in Japan" (p. 1), "Anti-Bias Group Eyes Removal of Race Restrictions" (p. 1), "Aliens Now May Apply for Business" (p. 1).
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