Expatriation/repatriation/deportation

From 1943 to 1946, over 20,000 Japanese Americans applied to leave the United States for Japan in a process called "repatriation" (for Issei as non-citizens) or "expatriation" (for Nisei as citizens). Some Issei considered repatriation preferable to remaining in a country that had long discriminated against them. For Nisei, who had rarely been to Japan, expatriation meant renouncing their U.S. citizenship. Some were pressured to do so by family members or extremists; others were bitter about their mistreatment by the government. In total, only 4,724 ended up leaving for Japan directly from the camps and many eventually returned to the U.S. Nearly all Nisei who wanted to were able to regain their citizenship, although the process was long and difficult.

Expatriation/repatriation/deportation (154)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Joe Kurihara

154 items
Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-279)
img Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-279)
Original WRA caption: "Japanese repatriates embarking for Japan." Although the WRA caption specifically refers to repatriates, many Japanese Americans who left were citizens of the United States and therefore, expatriates.
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 22 (March 25, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-9)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 22 (March 25, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-9)
"Text of Masaoka's Speech : Clarifies Japanese-American Situation" (p. 1), "Seeks Linguists" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 29 (April 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-196)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 29 (April 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-196)
"Issei, Nisei May Get Claims Forms for Lost or Damaged Articles" (p. 1), "Bill Gives Atty. - Gen More Power" (p. 1), "Shaft Honors War Dead of This Area" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 46 (May 29, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-114)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 46 (May 29, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-114)
"Issei Urged to Fill Out First Papers" (p. 1), "2 Stowaways on Ship will be Deported" (p. 1), "Third Parley on U.S. Rights Ends in D.C." (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 42 (June 17, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-30)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 42 (June 17, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-30)
"House Immigration Unit Favors H.R. 3566, JACL-ADC Reports" (p. 1) "54 Nisei Leave for Alaska Canned Salmon Work" (p. 1), "Vote for Claims Board Measure, Rep. Twyman Tells Colleagues" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 30 (April 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-99)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 30 (April 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-99)
"Canada Curbs on Japanese to Continue" (p. 1), "House Gets Few More Measures to Aid 3 Japanese Aliens" (p. 1), "Judd Urges Quick Amendment on Naturalization Bills" (p. 4).
The Newell Star, Extra (December 10, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-107)
doc The Newell Star, Extra (December 10, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-107)
Special publication titled "Justice Dept. Announces Policy on Repatriation."
The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 5 (April 6, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-10)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 5 (April 6, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-10)
Selected article titles: "Sentence Nine Draft Evaders" (p. 1), "Duplicate Forms Needed for Repatriation-Records" (p. 1), "Personnel Mess Fire Caused by Overheating" (p. 2), and "Groundwork Laid for Tule Lake Baseball Association" (p. 6).
Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-6)
img Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-6)
Caption in album: "Pop & Taka / Life in Japan after repatriation."
Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-9)
img Okabe Family in Japan (ddr-manz-5-9)
Caption in album: "Ge-Chan / Life in Japan after repatriation."
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 44 (ddr-densho-1000-164-44)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 44 (ddr-densho-1000-164-44)
Life in Japan, postwar: working for a land reclamation project, then finding a job with a Japanese construction company as an interpreter
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 41 (ddr-densho-1000-164-41)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 41 (ddr-densho-1000-164-41)
Preparing for life in Japan: learning the language, feeling worried
Arthur Ogami Interview Segment 27 (ddr-densho-1000-154-27)
vh Arthur Ogami Interview Segment 27 (ddr-densho-1000-154-27)
Undergoing an interview prior to expatriation: questioned regarding possibly joining the Japanese Imperial Army
Richard E. Yamashiro Interview Segment 20 (ddr-densho-1000-333-20)
vh Richard E. Yamashiro Interview Segment 20 (ddr-densho-1000-333-20)
Arriving in Japan, witnessing the devastation

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Diary on daily life at Tule Lake Camp (ddr-csujad-2-61)
doc Diary on daily life at Tule Lake Camp (ddr-csujad-2-61)
Diary of daily life at Tule Lake Camp for two days : March 9, 1944 and March 30, 1944. Diary in the form of interviews from anonymous Tule Lake incarcerees. Describes threat of violence from other incarcerees regarding food shortage, an art exhibit, repatriation, and the psychological impact of incarceration. See this object in the California ...
Letter from S. [Koni] to Hon [F de Amat], November 13,1943 (ddr-csujad-2-4)
doc Letter from S. [Koni] to Hon [F de Amat], November 13,1943 (ddr-csujad-2-4)
Letter from Shunichi K. to [F. de Amat] requesting status on his application to be repatriated to Japan with his wife. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0004
Translation of poster at Tule Lake Camp regarding repatriation and loyalty to Japan (ddr-csujad-2-43)
doc Translation of poster at Tule Lake Camp regarding repatriation and loyalty to Japan (ddr-csujad-2-43)
Translation of a poster within washrooms at the Tule Lake Incarceration Camp. Describes inadequate treatment of incarcerees compared to other camps, loyalty and repatriation to Japan, and the need to quell "disgraceful behavior" such as violence. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0043
The ship
img The ship "Marine Lynx" in San Francisco Bay awaiting the arrival of more than 200 Indonesian seamen for deportation to Dutch East Indies (ddr-csujad-27-2)
Caption found with the image reads, "'Marine Lynx' resting peacefully at anchor in San Francisco Bay awaiting arrival of more than 200 Indonesian seamen, for deportation to Dutch East Indies. Most of them had been in custody at New York awaiting the sailing of some vessel from the West Coast. They had arrived in Atlantic Ports ...
Indonesian men at the immigration detention facility in San Francisco waiting to be transported to the immigration detention facility in Crystal City, Texas (ddr-csujad-27-8)
img Indonesian men at the immigration detention facility in San Francisco waiting to be transported to the immigration detention facility in Crystal City, Texas (ddr-csujad-27-8)
Caption found with the image reads, "After several weeks of action in the U.S. District Court, and an appeal to the Circuit Court of Appeals and to the Supreme Court, an order was obtained for removal of the Indonesians from the immigration detention quarters, San Francisco, to the immigration Detention Facility at Crystal City, Texas. Here ...
API