Expatriation/repatriation/deportation

From 1943 to 1946, over 20,000 Japanese Americans applied to leave the United States for Japan in a process called "repatriation" (for Issei as non-citizens) or "expatriation" (for Nisei as citizens). Some Issei considered repatriation preferable to remaining in a country that had long discriminated against them. For Nisei, who had rarely been to Japan, expatriation meant renouncing their U.S. citizenship. Some were pressured to do so by family members or extremists; others were bitter about their mistreatment by the government. In total, only 4,724 ended up leaving for Japan directly from the camps and many eventually returned to the U.S. Nearly all Nisei who wanted to were able to regain their citizenship, although the process was long and difficult.

World War II (66)
Resistance and dissidence (52)
Expatriation/repatriation/deportation (153)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Joe Kurihara

153 items
Translation of poster at Tule Lake Camp regarding repatriation and loyalty to Japan (ddr-csujad-2-43)
doc Translation of poster at Tule Lake Camp regarding repatriation and loyalty to Japan (ddr-csujad-2-43)
Translation of a poster within washrooms at the Tule Lake Incarceration Camp. Describes inadequate treatment of incarcerees compared to other camps, loyalty and repatriation to Japan, and the need to quell "disgraceful behavior" such as violence. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0043
[Some reactions to selective service: Tule Lake] (ddr-csujad-2-58)
doc [Some reactions to selective service: Tule Lake] (ddr-csujad-2-58)
Report on selective service reactions at Tule Lake Camp. Report discusses Japanese identity compared to American identity, especially for the Nisei, repatriation requests, and draft evasion. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0058
Japanese Americans boarding ship (ddr-csujad-7-10)
img Japanese Americans boarding ship (ddr-csujad-7-10)
Japanese Americans boarding ship to return to Japan, Seattle, Washington, November 24, 1945. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: HMLSC_JA_f10
Indonesian seamen at an immigration detention center in downtown San Francisco (ddr-csujad-27-3)
img Indonesian seamen at an immigration detention center in downtown San Francisco (ddr-csujad-27-3)
Caption found with the image reads, "Just before sailing time, the Immigration Service and the ship's captain were served with an order from the U.S. District Court to the effect that petition for a writ of habeas corpus had been filed on behalf of the Indonesians, claiming they would receive 'certain imprisonment and probable death' upon ...
Indonesian men at the immigration detention facility in San Francisco waiting to be transported to the immigration detention facility in Crystal City, Texas (ddr-csujad-27-8)
img Indonesian men at the immigration detention facility in San Francisco waiting to be transported to the immigration detention facility in Crystal City, Texas (ddr-csujad-27-8)
Caption found with the image reads, "After several weeks of action in the U.S. District Court, and an appeal to the Circuit Court of Appeals and to the Supreme Court, an order was obtained for removal of the Indonesians from the immigration detention quarters, San Francisco, to the immigration Detention Facility at Crystal City, Texas. Here ...
Approximately 200 Indonesians in San Francisco being placed aboard the
img Approximately 200 Indonesians in San Francisco being placed aboard the "Marine Lynx" for deportation to Batavia, Dutch East Indies (ddr-csujad-27-4)
Caption found with the image reads, "Approximately 200 Indonesians being placed aboard the "Marine Lynx" for deportation to Batavia, Dutch East Indies." The ship is anchored in the San Francisco Bay. This image shows men walking up a gangplank onto the boat. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ind_01_01_002
Indonesians boarding a train in San Francisco for the immigration detention facility at Crystal City, Texas (ddr-csujad-27-7)
img Indonesians boarding a train in San Francisco for the immigration detention facility at Crystal City, Texas (ddr-csujad-27-7)
Caption found with the image reads, "Here are the Indonesians boarding the Southern Pacific train, San Francisco, bound for Crystal City, Texas." This image shows a line of men with suitcases waiting to get on the train. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ind_01_01_009
Indonesians boarding buses in San Francisco to be taken to a waiting train (ddr-csujad-27-9)
img Indonesians boarding buses in San Francisco to be taken to a waiting train (ddr-csujad-27-9)
Caption found with the image reads, "Another view of Indonesians boarding buses at Immigration Station, San Francisco, to be taken to a waiting train." The train was to take them to the immigration detention facility at Crystal City, Texas. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ind_01_01_007
Sleeping quarters of Indonesians aboard the
img Sleeping quarters of Indonesians aboard the "Marine Lynx" (ddr-csujad-27-1)
Caption found with the image reads, "Sleeping quarters of Indonesians aboard the "Marine Lynx" with deportees standing beside bunks assigned to them." This is a group of approximately 200 Indonesian seamen who are being deported from San Francisco, California to Batavia, Dutch East Indies. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project ...
Indonesian deportees changing currency (ddr-csujad-27-5)
img Indonesian deportees changing currency (ddr-csujad-27-5)
Caption found with the image reads, "Indonesian deportees having their United States money changed to currency they could use when they arrived 'home'." These Indonesian seamen were being deported by ship from San Francisco, California to Batavia, Dutch East Indies. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ind_01_01_003
Diary on daily life at Tule Lake Camp (ddr-csujad-2-61)
doc Diary on daily life at Tule Lake Camp (ddr-csujad-2-61)
Diary of daily life at Tule Lake Camp for two days : March 9, 1944 and March 30, 1944. Diary in the form of interviews from anonymous Tule Lake incarcerees. Describes threat of violence from other incarcerees regarding food shortage, an art exhibit, repatriation, and the psychological impact of incarceration. See this object in the California ...
Letter from S. [Koni] to Hon [F de Amat], November 13,1943 (ddr-csujad-2-4)
doc Letter from S. [Koni] to Hon [F de Amat], November 13,1943 (ddr-csujad-2-4)
Letter from Shunichi K. to [F. de Amat] requesting status on his application to be repatriated to Japan with his wife. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0004
Report on Jerome to Tule Lake transfer George Kuratomi (ddr-csujad-2-46)
doc Report on Jerome to Tule Lake transfer George Kuratomi (ddr-csujad-2-46)
Detailed informational report about George Kuratomi, an incarceree transfer to Tule Lake Camp from Jerome Camp due to questions about his loyalty to the United States and his activities within the Buddhist repatriate group at Jerome Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0046
[Significant factors in requests for repatriation and expatriation] (ddr-csujad-2-57)
doc [Significant factors in requests for repatriation and expatriation] (ddr-csujad-2-57)
Report on the influx of repatriation to Japan requests from Manzanar Incarceration Camp. Report describes camp life in Tule Lake compared to Manzanar, special concerns with Kibei and Issei individuals, the draft, and family dilemma related to repatriation. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0057
[Internal security case report: disorderly conduct] (ddr-csujad-2-44)
doc [Internal security case report: disorderly conduct] (ddr-csujad-2-44)
Internal report describes Internal Security Officer Fenton Mahrt finding Masato Morinaga in a very intoxicated condition at the personnel garage. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0044
Izumi Taniguchi interview (ddr-csujad-6-31)
doc Izumi Taniguchi interview (ddr-csujad-6-31)
Oral history interview with Izumi Taniguchi. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: SCRC_TANIGUCHI_IZUMI
Kou Uyemaruko (ddr-csujad-8-81)
doc Kou Uyemaruko (ddr-csujad-8-81)
Oral history interview with Kou Uyemaruko [Ko Uemaruko]. Information on the oral history project is found in: csuf_stp_0012A; Glossary in: csuf_stp_0014. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: FCPL Uyemaruko, Kou
Letter from Michi Weglyn to Frank Chin, September 26, 1991 (ddr-csujad-24-104)
doc Letter from Michi Weglyn to Frank Chin, September 26, 1991 (ddr-csujad-24-104)
A letter from Michi Weglyn to Frank Chin about a woman named Kiyoko Mozaki who was teaching a class on Japanese Americans at a university in Koyoto, Japan. Weglyn states that Mozaki's father was incarcerated in the Tule Lake incarceration camp and later received a redress check. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese ...
The ship
img The ship "Marine Lynx" in San Francisco Bay awaiting the arrival of more than 200 Indonesian seamen for deportation to Dutch East Indies (ddr-csujad-27-2)
Caption found with the image reads, "'Marine Lynx' resting peacefully at anchor in San Francisco Bay awaiting arrival of more than 200 Indonesian seamen, for deportation to Dutch East Indies. Most of them had been in custody at New York awaiting the sailing of some vessel from the West Coast. They had arrived in Atlantic Ports ...
Indonesians leaving buses at the Southern Pacific depot in San Francisco, to board a train to take them to the immigration detention facility at Crystal City, Texas (ddr-csujad-27-6)
img Indonesians leaving buses at the Southern Pacific depot in San Francisco, to board a train to take them to the immigration detention facility at Crystal City, Texas (ddr-csujad-27-6)
Caption found with the image reads, "Showing Indonesians leaving buses, at Southern Pacific depot, San Francisco, to board railroad coaches waiting for them." This train was to take them to the immigration detention facility at Crystal City, Texas. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ind_01_01_008
Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-282)
img Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-282)
Original WRA caption: "Japanese repatriates embarking for Japan." Although the WRA caption specifically refers to repatriates, many Japanese Americans who left were citizens of the United States and therefore, expatriates.
Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-278)
img Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-278)
Original WRA caption: "Japanese repatriates embarking for Japan." Although the WRA caption specifically refers to repatriates, many Japanese Americans who left were citizens of the United States and therefore, expatriates.
Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-279)
img Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-279)
Original WRA caption: "Japanese repatriates embarking for Japan." Although the WRA caption specifically refers to repatriates, many Japanese Americans who left were citizens of the United States and therefore, expatriates.
Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-280)
img Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-280)
Original WRA caption: "Japanese repatriates embarking for Japan." Although the WRA caption specifically refers to repatriates, many Japanese Americans who left were citizens of the United States and therefore, expatriates.
Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-277)
img Japanese repatriates leaving for Japan (ddr-densho-37-277)
Original WRA caption: "Japanese repatriates embarking for Japan." Although the WRA caption specifically refers to repatriates, many Japanese Americans who left were citizens of the United States and therefore, expatriates.
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