Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (302)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

302 items
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 7 (January 24, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-4)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 7 (January 24, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-4)
"Finch Starts Drive to Aid Hawaii GI's" (p. 1),"Urges Improvement of "Blighted' Areas" (p. 1), "L.A. Council Hits Land Law Section" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 78 (September 18, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-140)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 78 (September 18, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-140)
"Evangelical, Reformed Church Supports End of Racial Bias in Present Immigration Laws" (p. 1), "Laws Favoring Japanese OK'd" (p. 1),
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 102 (December 11, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-163)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 102 (December 11, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-163)
"Nisei Seeks U.S. Rights, Files Suit" (p. 1), "Last Rites for Sgt. John Hashimoto Will be on Saturday, Dec. 18" (p. 1), "JACL Will Distribute Claims Forms Dec. 17" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 61 (July 30, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-228)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 61 (July 30, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-228)
"130 Strandees Ask Re-Entry, JCCA Reports" (p. 1), "Justice Department Unit Aide Outlines How Its L.A. Office Will Process the Claims" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 40 (May 8, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-108)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 40 (May 8, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-108)
"Senate Unit Favors Bills with Riders" (p. 1), "26 Nisei GI Dead Due Home" (p. 1),
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 43 (October 26, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-93)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 43 (October 26, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-93)
Selected article titles: "Those Seeking Changes in Forms Must Write" (p. 1), "Minidoka Camp Closes 9 Days Ahead of Schedule" (p. 1), "General Stilwell's Action Commended by Secy. Ickes" (p. 2), and "3 Govt. Departments: Remove or Modify Rules for Employment of Nisei" (p. 4).
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 14 (April 6, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-63)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 14 (April 6, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-63)
Selected article titles: "Stop List Interviews, Deportation Hearings Being Conducted Here" (pp. 1-2), "Center's End of Year Population Figures Given" (p. 1), "Four Violators Plead Guilty at Project Trials" (p. 2), and "Hana Matsuri: Center Buddhist Churches to Hold Gotanye Services" (p. 3).
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 46 (November 16, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-98)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 46 (November 16, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-98)
Selected article titles: "1 Month Left for Planning: More Than 3000 Leave Since First of the Year" (p. 1), "Minors Born in U.S. May Return as U.S. Citizens" (pp. 1-2), and "400 Islanders Slated to Return Home Soon" (p. 2), and "Tuleans Receive Surprise on Way to Seabrook Farms" (p. 3).
Gidra, Vol. I, No. 4 (July 1969) (ddr-densho-297-4)
doc Gidra, Vol. I, No. 4 (July 1969) (ddr-densho-297-4)
Selected article titles: "Experimental College Starts" (p. 1), "Yellow Brotherhood Food for Thought" (p. 1), "Blind Reflections?" (p. 2), "The Misunderstanding in Chinatown" (p. 4).
Gidra, Vol. I, No. 5 (August 1969) (ddr-densho-297-5)
doc Gidra, Vol. I, No. 5 (August 1969) (ddr-densho-297-5)
Selected article titles: "CINCIP Is Here!!" (p. 1), "The Burden of Life" (p. 1), "Hey, Look Me Over" (p. 5), "The Chinese in Los Angeles" (p. 6), "The Korean Americans" (p. 8), "The Filipino Immigrant" (p. 9).
Notification of appointment date (ddr-densho-278-9)
doc Notification of appointment date (ddr-densho-278-9)
Appointment notice for Henry Watanabe to return to the United States from Japan.
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 2 (July 8, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-26)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 2 (July 8, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-26)
Selected article titles: "Angry Words Fly Over J-Town Housing: (p.1), "AMA Conference Tables Move to Aid Hibakusha" (p.1), "Asians Criticize Census Test Site" (p.1), "Hearing Off on Retirement Credit Bill" (p.2), "Law Denying College Aid to Aliens Invalidated" (p.3), "Nisei Marriages Evolving" (p.5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 14 (September 30, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-38)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 14 (September 30, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-38)
Selected article titles: "Census Bureau Plans to Drop 'Asian/Pac Island' Category" (p.1), "UC Davis Winning War of Briefs in Bakke Case" (p.1), "EXECOM Looks at Reparations" (p.1-2, 4), "E-1 Visa Student Privilege in Other States Encouraged" (p.2), "Tacoma Reunion-One Man's View" (p.3, 7), "Japanese Christian Mission Centennial in U.S. All Set" (p.7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 21 (November 18, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-45)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 21 (November 18, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-45)
Selected article titles: "Supreme Court: Rights of Alien to Be Police Argued, Other Major Cases on Aliens Still Pending" (p.1), "Seattle JACLer in Prominent Role at National Women's Conference" (p.1), "Carter Team Lashed for Shunning the Nikkei" (p.1, 9), "Reparations? No!" (p.4), "Evacuees from Peru" (p.5), "Calif. Agriculture and the Nikkei" (p.7), "A Third Position Presented …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 7 (August 12, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-31)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 7 (August 12, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-31)
Selected article titles: "Asians Question Ruling on Filipino Nurses" (p.1), "Carter's Plan on Illegal Aliens Finally Detailed" (p.1), "Mineta Keeps Hectic Schedule on Recent Home District Visit" (p.1, 3), "A Sansei Awakening" (p.4, 7), "Tacoma Reunion" (p.4), "Young Peoples Christian Conference Foundation Stone for Nisei Leadership" (p.7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 1 (July 1, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-25)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 1 (July 1, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-25)
Selected article titles: "JACL Joins 20 Other Nat'l Groups in Case Against Bakke" (p.1-2), "'Nondeportable' Status Likely to Relieve Longtime 'Illegals'" (p.1-2), "Gov. Ray Signs E-1 Visa Alien Tuition Law" (p.1-2), "The Pride at Seabrook" (p.4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 84, No. 4 (February 4, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 84, No. 4 (February 4, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-4)
Selected article titles: "Illegal Immigration on the Rise in US" (p.1), "New Yorkers to Discuss Nsei 'after-65' Problems" (p.1, 7), "Canada to Decorate Issei and Sansei" (p.1), "Wendy Yoshimura: One Juror Was 'Pressured'" (p.2, 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2054 (August 3, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-30)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2054 (August 3, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-30)
Selected article titles: "Minidoka Site Dedication: Sen. Church, Hosokawa Paired" (p. 1), "Viet Refugees in Japan Unhappy, Few Want to Stay" (p. 1), "From the Frying Pan: Chapter Vote on Redress" (p. 5), and "Jesse Kuhaulua Faces Toughest Sumo Bout: Career or Citizenship" (p. 8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2074 (December 21-28, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-50)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2074 (December 21-28, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-50)
Special holiday issue. Selected article titles: "School Teacher Recalls Minidoka" (p. 26), "In Defense of JACL's Founding Membership Principle: Citizenship" (pp. 47-48), "Nikkei Impressions of Nikkei America After a Long Absence" (pp. 49, 92), and "Growing up in Postwar Japan" (pp. 54, 94). The holiday issue included advertisements bought by JACL members and chapters that included …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2053 (July 27, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-29)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2053 (July 27, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-29)
Selected article titles: "U.S. Responds to 'Save the Boat People' Campaign" (p. 1), "In the Last 100 Years: Estimate 905,000 Japanese Emigrated" (p. 1), "Guest Speaker: A 'No-No' Segregee" (pp. 4, 9), and "Nisei in Japan: Yankee Samurai Here and Now" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2041 (May 4, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2041 (May 4, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-17)
Selected article titles: "Omission of Asians 'Glaring Oversight' on U.S. List Designating 'Minorities'" (pp. 1-2, 11), "First Friday Feature: Angel Island Immigration Station Dedicated" (p. 3), "Japan Today: May 4-10 Asian/Pacific American Heritage Week" (p. 6), and "West Coast Nisei Farmers in 1942, if Given a Free Choice, Wanted to Remain" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 8 (February 26, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-8)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 8 (February 26, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-8)
Selected article titles: "'Reagan's Raids': People or Numbers" (pp. 1, 8), "JACL Now Preparing for 3-Year Redress Campaign" (pp. 1, 10), "East Wind: Issei Principles" (p. 5), and "Moshi-Moshi: Samrai Without Mystique--Kabu" (p. 12).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 13 (September 24, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-38)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 13 (September 24, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-38)
Selected article titles: "House Judiciary Committee Votes to Retain 5th Preference" (p. 1), "Japanese Canadians to Seek Redress for WW2 Relocation" (pp. 1-2), "Former Nisei Queen Responds to Rift Over 'Mixed Ancestry'" (p. 3), and "Alaskan and Japan Cities Make 'Sister Port' Pact Official" (p. 8).
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