Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (192)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

192 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 12 (September 17, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-37)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 12 (September 17, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-37)
Selected article titles: "JACL Urges Retention of 5th Preference in Immigrant Bill" (p. 1), "Names of Former State Workers Eligible for AB 2710 Released" (pp. 1-2), "Noguchi Begins His Defense" (p. 3), and "From the Frying Pan: Nisei Aging Project in Critical Need" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 19 (May 10, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-19)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 19 (May 10, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-19)
Select article titles: "Continuation of Japanese Farm Labor Held Likely by Hillings" (p. 1); "San Diegans urge elimination of Fuzz Young Story" (p. 1); "'Golden Reel' prize awarded to Nisei" (p. 1); "Against farm labor program but for higher Japan quota" (p. 1); "Seven months remain for 'illegally admitted' aliens in U.S. to change status ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 68, No. 21 (May 23, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-21)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 68, No. 21 (May 23, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-21)
Select article titles: "JACL firms commemoration of Centennial" (p. 1); " Racist strategy charged in Noguchi hearing" (p. 1); "JACL to Honor Nisei War Dead of Three Wars in May 25 Service" (p. 1); "San Francisco supervisory board adopts Title II repeal resolution" (p. 3)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 1 (January 2-9, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-1)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 1 (January 2-9, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-1)
Special New Year edition. Selected article titles: "Jackson: Japan Must Improve Treatment of Minorities" (pp. 1, 13), "Putting Substance Behind Our Words" (p. 8), "1986 Chronology" (pp. 10-12), and "Joseph Heco and the Joseph Heco Society" (pp. 18, 20-21).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 4 (January 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 4 (January 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-4)
Selected article titles: "JACL Anti-Defamation Chairman Denounces Hayakawa's Column" (p. 1), "Estimate 40,000 Vietnamese Will Be Living in California by June, 1976" (pp. 1-2), "Enomoto Faces Charge of Reverse Bias as State Affirmative Action Challenge" (p. 1), and "Editorials: Executive Order 9066" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 61 (July 30, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-228)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 61 (July 30, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-228)
"130 Strandees Ask Re-Entry, JCCA Reports" (p. 1), "Justice Department Unit Aide Outlines How Its L.A. Office Will Process the Claims" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 42 (May 15, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-110)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 42 (May 15, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-110)
"Community to Pay Respects to Northwest Nisei GI Dead at First Methodist, June 26" (p. 1), "Registration Measure Goes Before House" (p. 1), "Senate Sends Citizenship Bill Back to House for Rider Action" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 7 (January 24, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-4)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 7 (January 24, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-4)
"Finch Starts Drive to Aid Hawaii GI's" (p. 1),"Urges Improvement of "Blighted' Areas" (p. 1), "L.A. Council Hits Land Law Section" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 23 (March 19, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-190)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 23 (March 19, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-190)
"Franchise for B.C. Japanese Urged in Wismer Amendment" (p. 1), "Cites Hardships Due to Ruling" (p. 1), "Joint Rites Set for March 26 to Salute 7 Nisei War Dead; Services to be in Bukkyo-Kai" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 39 (May 5, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-107)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 39 (May 5, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-107)
"Two Earn Degrees at University; Pacific College Honors 4 Nisei" (p. 1), "Ishikawa Points Out Disabilities Facing "Ineligible' Peoples" (p. 5), "House Subcommittee Convenes in Executive Meet to Weigh Riders to Immigration Bills" (p. 6).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 75 (October 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-62)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 75 (October 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-62)
"Two Seek Citizenship Restoration Under Judge Cavanaugh's Ruling" (p. 1), "Jackson Street District Reports 156 Per Cent of Quota in 1947 Drive" (p. 1), "B.C. Official Protest Race Restrictions" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 18 (March 11, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-5)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 18 (March 11, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-5)
"Maine Solon Gives Support to JACL Plan" (p. 1), "House Body Sifts Immigration Ruling" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 4 (January 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-3)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 4 (January 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-3)
"Sees Complications in Return of Nisei Stranded in Japan" (p. 1), "Anti-Bias Group Eyes Removal of Race Restrictions" (p. 1), "Aliens Now May Apply for Business" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 88 (October 23, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-150)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 88 (October 23, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-150)
"Ban Prohibiting Oriental Citizens in Hawaii to Enter U.S. Lifted" (p. 1), "Mimbu, Sakahara to Speak on Problems Relating to Claims Forms on Oct. 27" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 104 (December 18, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-165)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 104 (December 18, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-165)
"Demo Leader OK's Rights Legislation" (p. 1), "Settlement Nears for Peru Japanese Stranded in U.S., Masaoka Reports" (p. 1), "B.C. to Continue Evacuee Aid" (p. 1), "Claims Queries and Replies" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 24 (April 1, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-10)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 24 (April 1, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-10)
"Nisei Vets Will Choose Officers Fri." (p. 1), "Seek MILS Men" (p. 1), "Urge Repeal in U.S. of Alien Status" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 81 (October 11, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-249)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 81 (October 11, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-249)
"Dual Citizens May Get Vested Property Back" (p. 1), "Story of 442nd Another Hollywood Step to Combat Racial, Religious Prejudice" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 25 (April 4, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-11)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 25 (April 4, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-11)
"Japan Pushes Tourist Plan for 1948, 1949" (p. 1), "Vancouver CLU Opposes Curbs Against Japanese Canadians" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 85 (October 13, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-147)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 85 (October 13, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-147)
"Masaoka Pleads GI Child Case" (pg.1), "More Questions, Answers on Evacuation Claims Law" (pg. 4)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 42, No. 10 (March 9, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-10)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 42, No. 10 (March 9, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-10)
Selected article titles: "Lane-Hillings Evacuation Claims Bill Unanimously Passed by House" (p. 1), "Asia Reds keep up discrimination tales" (p. 1), "JACL Asks FBI Hunt 'Lincoln Yamamoto'" (p. 1), "Bob Sakata honored Colorado's young farmer of year" (p. 2), "Oregon governor praises Japanese Americans, say 'no group has better earned' right to citizenship at Snake ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 47, No. 8 (August 22, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-34)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 47, No. 8 (August 22, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-34)
Select article titles: "Crucial issues before conventioners" (p.1); "Japanese press still ignores progress of U.S.-born Nisei" (p.7); "Congress approves bills to aid alien status adjustment in U.S." (p.8) Week of Biennium Conference in Salt Lake City, Utah
Pacific citizen, Vol. 77, No. 23, (December 7, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-48)
doc Pacific citizen, Vol. 77, No. 23, (December 7, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-48)
Select article titles: "U.S. Judge Rules 3-1 Ration for S.F. Police Dept." (p.1); "Calif. Legislature: Reappointment Settled" (p.1); "'Gambare!', Bannai Urges Nisei" (p.1); "Returned Land from U.S. Military in Japan to Be Converted into Parks" (p.5); "Geologist Says Japan Emerged from North Coast" (p.6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 11 (September 9, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-37)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 11 (September 9, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-37)
Select article titles: "JACL accepts Governor's call to attend senior citizens talk" (p.1); "Heartache and hardship immigration cases cited in JCCA brief evoke sympathy from Canada legislators and prime minister" (p.1); "Issei widow nearly deported to Mexico saved by CL plea" (p.3); "Magnuson hits alien land law as undemocratic" (p.8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 62, No. 7 (February 16, 1966) (ddr-pc-38-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 62, No. 7 (February 16, 1966) (ddr-pc-38-7)
Select article titles: "Greater participation of Nisei in gov't urged at San Jose JACL installation" (p.1); "Immigration history of U.S. told in brief in forthcoming 'This Week'" (p.1); "South Seattle Farming Areas May Be Boeing's" (p.1).
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