Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (290)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

290 items
Alien Registration Receipt Card (ddr-densho-325-52)
doc Alien Registration Receipt Card (ddr-densho-325-52)
Alien Registration Receipt Card for Shitsuko Nimura, Hisa Nimura Horiuchi's mother.
Request for verification of landing (ddr-densho-314-32)
doc Request for verification of landing (ddr-densho-314-32)
The back of this form has a stamp for The National Archives stating that this document is from Record Group No. 85. The handwritten note states "Santae Fe, N.M. Internment Capt. File # 1200/B-2330".
Certificate of Nationality (ddr-densho-308-9)
doc Certificate of Nationality (ddr-densho-308-9)
Chiyoko Kanazawa's certificate of nationality. Kanazawa's daughter, Mae (Kanazawa) Hara recalled that her mother immigrated to Seattle, Washington in 1912. She was a gifted sewer and flower arranger. Even near the end of her life when she came to live with Hara, she would spend the mornings arranging flowers cut from the garden.
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 21 (March 21, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-8)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 21 (March 21, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-8)
"Unions Reject Alaska Industrial Offer" (p. 1), "B.C. Students Ask Citizenship for Japanese, Indians" (p. 1), "Yoshida Urges U.S. to Stay in Japan to Insure Peace" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 34 (May 6, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-20)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 34 (May 6, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-20)
"House Unit Hearing on H.R. 2933 Finished" (p. 1), "Lifts Curbs on Japanese East of B.C." (p. 1), "Geisha Girls Are Having a Rough Time Under Allied Rule, It Says Here" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 21 (March 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-92)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 21 (March 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-92)
"Japan-Born Youth Awarded U.S. Rights so He May Join Father, a Citizen in L.A." (p. 1), "Anti-Red Unit Favors Rights for Japanese" (p. 1), "Winnipeg Meet Will Consider JCCA Program" (p. 4), "JACL to Place Plaque on Ship Honoring Nisei" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 3 (January 10, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-2)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 3 (January 10, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-2)
"U.S. Court Hears Status of 5,500 Nisei" (p. 1), "Seeks Passage of Claims Bill" (p. 1), "M.I.S. Grads Total 2,675 in Monterey" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 75 (October 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-62)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 75 (October 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-62)
"Two Seek Citizenship Restoration Under Judge Cavanaugh's Ruling" (p. 1), "Jackson Street District Reports 156 Per Cent of Quota in 1947 Drive" (p. 1), "B.C. Official Protest Race Restrictions" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 90 (October 30, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-152)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 90 (October 30, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-152)
"Naturalization Rights for Parents of All War Vets Urged by Legion" (p. 1), "ADC Asks Data On Work Bias" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 30 (April 22, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-16)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 30 (April 22, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-16)
"NVC to Show 442nd Film" (p. 1), "U.S. Navy Now Admits Nisei" (p. 1), "Three Judges Hear Case of Mrs. Bouiss" (p. 1), "Two Wholesale Evacuations: American and Canadian" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 13 (February 4, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-84)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 13 (February 4, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-84)
"H.R. Passes Bill to Liquidate Enemy Property. 250-Million Worth of Assets Once Belonging to Japanese, Germans Affected by Measure" (pg. 1), "Treason Trial Against Nisei in L.A. Delayed to May 11" (pg. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 4 (January 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-3)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 4 (January 14, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-3)
"Sees Complications in Return of Nisei Stranded in Japan" (p. 1), "Anti-Bias Group Eyes Removal of Race Restrictions" (p. 1), "Aliens Now May Apply for Business" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 88 (October 23, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-150)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 88 (October 23, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-150)
"Ban Prohibiting Oriental Citizens in Hawaii to Enter U.S. Lifted" (p. 1), "Mimbu, Sakahara to Speak on Problems Relating to Claims Forms on Oct. 27" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 104 (December 18, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-165)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 104 (December 18, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-165)
"Demo Leader OK's Rights Legislation" (p. 1), "Settlement Nears for Peru Japanese Stranded in U.S., Masaoka Reports" (p. 1), "B.C. to Continue Evacuee Aid" (p. 1), "Claims Queries and Replies" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 29 (April 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-196)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 29 (April 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-196)
"Issei, Nisei May Get Claims Forms for Lost or Damaged Articles" (p. 1), "Bill Gives Atty. - Gen More Power" (p. 1), "Shaft Honors War Dead of This Area" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 24 (April 1, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-10)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 24 (April 1, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-10)
"Nisei Vets Will Choose Officers Fri." (p. 1), "Seek MILS Men" (p. 1), "Urge Repeal in U.S. of Alien Status" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 20 (March 18, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-7)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 20 (March 18, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-7)
"Fort Denies GI's in Town Saturday Night" (p. 1), "Pay Differences Peril Continuance of Salmon Industry" (p. 1), "Most Japanese Unaffected by Deportation Rule" (p. 2)
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 85 (October 13, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-147)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 85 (October 13, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-147)
"Masaoka Pleads GI Child Case" (pg.1), "More Questions, Answers on Evacuation Claims Law" (pg. 4)
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 55 (August 5, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-42)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 55 (August 5, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-42)
"Senate Approves Measure to Probe Immigration Situation in Nation" (p. 1), "Kawakita to be Tried for Treason in Los Angeles on October 21" (p. 1) "About The Sun's Invasion of B.C." (p. 4).
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