Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (192)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

192 items
Alien Registration Receipt Card (ddr-densho-325-52)
doc Alien Registration Receipt Card (ddr-densho-325-52)
Alien Registration Receipt Card for Shitsuko Nimura, Hisa Nimura Horiuchi's mother.
Green Card (ddr-densho-325-53)
doc Green Card (ddr-densho-325-53)
The Green Card for Shitsuko Nimura, Hisa Nimura Horiuchi's mother.
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 2 (July 8, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-26)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 2 (July 8, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-26)
Selected article titles: "Angry Words Fly Over J-Town Housing: (p.1), "AMA Conference Tables Move to Aid Hibakusha" (p.1), "Asians Criticize Census Test Site" (p.1), "Hearing Off on Retirement Credit Bill" (p.2), "Law Denying College Aid to Aliens Invalidated" (p.3), "Nisei Marriages Evolving" (p.5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 14 (September 30, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-38)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 14 (September 30, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-38)
Selected article titles: "Census Bureau Plans to Drop 'Asian/Pac Island' Category" (p.1), "UC Davis Winning War of Briefs in Bakke Case" (p.1), "EXECOM Looks at Reparations" (p.1-2, 4), "E-1 Visa Student Privilege in Other States Encouraged" (p.2), "Tacoma Reunion-One Man's View" (p.3, 7), "Japanese Christian Mission Centennial in U ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 21 (November 18, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-45)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 21 (November 18, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-45)
Selected article titles: "Supreme Court: Rights of Alien to Be Police Argued, Other Major Cases on Aliens Still Pending" (p.1), "Seattle JACLer in Prominent Role at National Women's Conference" (p.1), "Carter Team Lashed for Shunning the Nikkei" (p.1, 9), "Reparations? No!" (p.4), "Evacuees from Peru" (p.5), "Calif. Agriculture and the ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 1 (July 1, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-25)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 1 (July 1, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-25)
Selected article titles: "JACL Joins 20 Other Nat'l Groups in Case Against Bakke" (p.1-2), "'Nondeportable' Status Likely to Relieve Longtime 'Illegals'" (p.1-2), "Gov. Ray Signs E-1 Visa Alien Tuition Law" (p.1-2), "The Pride at Seabrook" (p.4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 1 (July 1, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-27)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 1 (July 1, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-27)
Select article titles: "League plans definitive Issei history" (p.1); "Visiting novelist from Japan compares 'children of setting sun' with U.S. beatniks" (p.6); "78-year-old Issei among few survivors of first shipload of Japanese to Hawaii" (p.7); "'Japanese go home' incidents reported by Nisei newspaperman in wake of Eisenhower's visit to Japan being ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 10 (September 2, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-36)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 10 (September 2, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-36)
Select article titles: "Japanese in Hawaii celebrate 75th anniv. Of 1st emigration; recall roll of Ben Franklin's descendant in Japan in 1860-70s" (p.1); "Washington State Congressional Group Endorses Repeal Anti-Alien Land Law" (p. 6)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 76, No. 24, (June 22, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-24)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 76, No. 24, (June 22, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-24)
Select article titles: "New Look in JACL Greets Officials Attending National Interim Session" (p.1); "Asian American Actors Win Case Against N.Y. Repertory Theater" (p.1); "San Francisco Asian Action Group Urges JACL Return Gerontology Fund" (p.1); "Nisei Knocks Mineta Elk Boycott" (p.3); "Rep. Mink Urges Emphasis on Asian Studies" (p.3); "Facts ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 111, No. 1 (July 6-13, 1990) (ddr-pc-62-26)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 111, No. 1 (July 6-13, 1990) (ddr-pc-62-26)
Select article titles: "Draft Resisters React Favorably to Resolution"(p.1);"Redress Eligibility Process for WWII Nisei Servicemen Explained"(p.1);"Recent Immigrants Strain Chinatown's Resources"(p.2); "L.A. Unified School District Dedicates Its First Japanese American Named School"(p.3); "Resolution 13: To Heal the Community's Wartime Wounds"(p.6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 62, No. 5 (February 4, 1966) (ddr-pc-38-5)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 62, No. 5 (February 4, 1966) (ddr-pc-38-5)
Select article titles: "Success Story: Japanese American Style" (p.1); "Sixth AJA killed in Vietnam, with helicopter team" (p.1); "Henry Kasai, 75, dies of Natural causes in Salt Lake Hospital" (p.1);"Appreciation banquet to three elders of Seattle community draws 300 Issei" (p.5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 05, (August 3, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-30)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 05, (August 3, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-30)
Select article titles: "If Constitution Can Be Amended Issei Might Be U.S. President" (p.1); "Sen. Inouye Will Talk to Himself in Hawaiian" (p.1); "Ruth Asawa's Wire Sculptures Draw Raves at San Francisco Museum of Art" (p.3); "Nat'l CACA Convenes in L.A." (p.4); "Low-key Minority Hiring Practices in State ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 10, (September 7, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-35)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 10, (September 7, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-35)
Select article titles:"Opposition to So. Korea Govt. Seen Taking Hold" (p.1); "EXECOM at Detroit Open Board sessions Voted" (p.1); "NIMH Funds Asian American Drug Abuse Program on County-wide Basis" (p.1); "Citizenship and the Alien" (p.2); "You Are Out of Order, Mr. Wilson" (p.3); "United Japanese Community Services Operating on United ...
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 29 (April 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-196)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 29 (April 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-196)
"Issei, Nisei May Get Claims Forms for Lost or Damaged Articles" (p. 1), "Bill Gives Atty. - Gen More Power" (p. 1), "Shaft Honors War Dead of This Area" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 69 (September 23, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-56)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 69 (September 23, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-56)
"France and U.S. Will Honor Nisei GI War Dead in Special Ceremony in Bruyeres on October 30" (p. 1), "Visit to Japan Not O.K. Yet, JACL Learns" (p. 1),"Final Briefs Completed for Alien Land Law Case" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 42 (June 17, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-30)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 42 (June 17, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-30)
"House Immigration Unit Favors H.R. 3566, JACL-ADC Reports" (p. 1) "54 Nisei Leave for Alaska Canned Salmon Work" (p. 1), "Vote for Claims Board Measure, Rep. Twyman Tells Colleagues" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 30 (April 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-99)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 30 (April 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-99)
"Canada Curbs on Japanese to Continue" (p. 1), "House Gets Few More Measures to Aid 3 Japanese Aliens" (p. 1), "Judd Urges Quick Amendment on Naturalization Bills" (p. 4).
Citizenship essay (ddr-one-3-115)
doc Citizenship essay (ddr-one-3-115)
Photocopy of a handwritten essay on citizenship written by George Kida, c.1930-1933. Essay covers right, privileges and duties of citizens.
Certificate of Nationality (ddr-densho-308-9)
doc Certificate of Nationality (ddr-densho-308-9)
Chiyoko Kanazawa's certificate of nationality. Kanazawa's daughter, Mae (Kanazawa) Hara recalled that her mother immigrated to Seattle, Washington in 1912. She was a gifted sewer and flower arranger. Even near the end of her life when she came to live with Hara, she would spend the mornings arranging flowers cut from the garden.
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