Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (298)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

298 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 03, (July 20, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-28)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 03, (July 20, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-28)
Select article titles: "State Alien Job Laws Voided" (p.1); "Inouye Avoiding Lure of TV Showmanship" (p.1); "Nat'l JACL Produces Kit for Chapters to Push Local Area History Workshops" (p.1); "'Guilty by Reason of Race' Reactions from Japan" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 76, No. 24, (June 22, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-24)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 76, No. 24, (June 22, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-24)
Select article titles: "New Look in JACL Greets Officials Attending National Interim Session" (p.1); "Asian American Actors Win Case Against N.Y. Repertory Theater" (p.1); "San Francisco Asian Action Group Urges JACL Return Gerontology Fund" (p.1); "Nisei Knocks Mineta Elk Boycott" (p.3); "Rep. Mink Urges Emphasis on Asian Studies" (p.3); "Facts (Not Innuendoes) Needed to Fix Korean …
Pacific citizen, Vol. 77, No. 23, (December 7, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-48)
doc Pacific citizen, Vol. 77, No. 23, (December 7, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-48)
Select article titles: "U.S. Judge Rules 3-1 Ration for S.F. Police Dept." (p.1); "Calif. Legislature: Reappointment Settled" (p.1); "'Gambare!', Bannai Urges Nisei" (p.1); "Returned Land from U.S. Military in Japan to Be Converted into Parks" (p.5); "Geologist Says Japan Emerged from North Coast" (p.6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 80, No. 20 (May 23, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-20)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 80, No. 20 (May 23, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-20)
Selected article titles: "Fred I. Nakagawa Case: American Schools in Japan Still Cool Toward Affirmative Action" (pp. 1-2), "Anti-Viet Refugee Stand Berated" (pp. 1, 3), and "Book Review: 'Americans from Japan' Reissued" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 80, No. 19 (May 16, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-19)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 80, No. 19 (May 16, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-19)
Selected article titles: "An Editorial Up Front: Refugees from Vietnam" (p. 1), "Ushio Calls for Nikkei Support of Viet Refugees" (pp. 1-2), "Queen Elizabeth, Prince Philip Visit to Be Lifetime Memories" (pp. 1-2), and "Nikkei Have Historic Commitment to Protect Civil Liberties: Mineta" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 80, No. 4 (January 31, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 80, No. 4 (January 31, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-4)
Selected article titles: "'Toshiba Story' Irks Union Call for Boycott" (pp. 1, 4), "Supreme Court Hears Arguments on Aliens Being Employed in U.S. Gov't" (p. 1), "Dobashi-Ushio Duologue" (pp. 1-2), and "Ore-Idaho Nikkei Pioneers Feted" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 7 (August 15, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-32)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 7 (August 15, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-32)
Selected article titles: "Nat'l JACL Facing Deficit of $30,000" (pp. 1-2), "FBI Still Keeps List of Security 'Risks' on File" (pp. 1-2), and "High Influx of Asian Immigrants, Tourists to Stay" (p. 4).
The Nisei Weekender, Vol. 1, No. 20 (May 9, 1946) (ddr-densho-358-4)
doc The Nisei Weekender, Vol. 1, No. 20 (May 9, 1946) (ddr-densho-358-4)
Selected article titles: "Kuroki Protests Treatment of Minority Vets in Parley with Gen. Omar Bradley" (p.1, 4), "Amemiya Billed for Ball Show" (p.1), "Hasty Deportation: 2 Days Given to Prepare" (p.1), "Greater N.Y. Group Seeks Coordination of Agencies Against Alien Deportation" (p.1), "Home Is the Soldier" (p.2).
The Nisei Weekender, Vol. 1, No. 21 (May 16, 1946) (ddr-densho-358-5)
doc The Nisei Weekender, Vol. 1, No. 21 (May 16, 1946) (ddr-densho-358-5)
Selected article titles: "Active Nisei Support Sought for D. Meyer [sic] Testimonial Dinner Next Wednesday" (p.1, "Eastern WRA Office Closes" (p.1), "Deportation to Be Studied at Meet" (p.1), "Nisei Locks Horns with Congressman on Federal Raise" (p.4).
Crossroads, Vol. 1, No. 42 (March 18, 1949) (ddr-densho-358-16)
doc Crossroads, Vol. 1, No. 42 (March 18, 1949) (ddr-densho-358-16)
Selected article titles: "Negroes, Chinese Oppose ENI" (p.1), "Evacuation Claims Questions, Answers" (p.2), "Toyo San: Saga of Senbei to Smart Photography" (p.3), "Mr. Watanabe Builds His Dream House" (p.11).
The Nisei Weekender, Vol. 1, No. 23 (May 30, 1946) (ddr-densho-358-6)
doc The Nisei Weekender, Vol. 1, No. 23 (May 30, 1946) (ddr-densho-358-6)
Selected article titles: "New Immigration Committee to Seek Release of 13 Remaining Deportees" (p.1, 3), "Federal Fund for Evacuee Aid Will End on June 30th" (p.1, 3), "See Here, Sgt. Kuroki: It's Bad to Generalize About Unions" (p.2), "You Ate Today, But: Millions Still Starve" (p.3).
Crossroads, Vol. 1, No. 40 (March 4, 1949) (ddr-densho-358-14)
doc Crossroads, Vol. 1, No. 40 (March 4, 1949) (ddr-densho-358-14)
Selected article titles: "House Pass Naturalization Bill" (p.1), "Bill Proposed Allowing Interned Aliens to Claim Property Loss" (p.1), "Raw Silk, Oysters Shipped from Japan" (p.2), "Nisei Strandees' Case Set for Trial March 6, May 10" (p.3).
The Nisei Weekender, Vol. 1, No. 19 (May 2, 1946) (ddr-densho-358-3)
doc The Nisei Weekender, Vol. 1, No. 19 (May 2, 1946) (ddr-densho-358-3)
Selected article titles: "Claims Commission Proposed" (p.1, 4), "Community to Be Mobilized to Supply Relief to Japan" (p.1), "Kuroki to Represent JACL Veterans in Protest Against Discriminatory Acts" (p.1), "Nisei March in First May 1 Parade in 5 Years" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 42, No. 10 (March 9, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-10)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 42, No. 10 (March 9, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-10)
Selected article titles: "Lane-Hillings Evacuation Claims Bill Unanimously Passed by House" (p. 1), "Asia Reds keep up discrimination tales" (p. 1), "JACL Asks FBI Hunt 'Lincoln Yamamoto'" (p. 1), "Bob Sakata honored Colorado's young farmer of year" (p. 2), "Oregon governor praises Japanese Americans, say 'no group has better earned' right to citizenship at Snake River …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 19 (May 10, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-19)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 19 (May 10, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-19)
Select article titles: "Continuation of Japanese Farm Labor Held Likely by Hillings" (p. 1); "San Diegans urge elimination of Fuzz Young Story" (p. 1); "'Golden Reel' prize awarded to Nisei" (p. 1); "Against farm labor program but for higher Japan quota" (p. 1); "Seven months remain for 'illegally admitted' aliens in U.S. to change status to …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 47, No. 13 (September 26, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-39)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 47, No. 13 (September 26, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-39)
Select article titles: "Man who helped 1,200 former aliens gain U.S. citizenship to be recognized" (p.1); "JACL endorses 'Give a Buck' plan for political campaigns" (p.1); "Buddhist leader appeals to Nisei, Sansei to fuse best of U.S.-Japan cultures" (p.7)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 11 (March 14, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-11)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 11 (March 14, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-11)
Select article titles: "Five records bettered in JACL pinfest" (p.1); "Naturalization classes resumed to aid Japanese wives of ex-GIs" (p.8); "Documentary film on 1942 evacuation under production" (p.8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 22 (May 30, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-22)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 22 (May 30, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-22)
Select article titles: "Sansei gunmen trail date set" (p. 1); "Nisei wins write-in election for California school post" (p.1); "Dr. Nishikawa to be keynote Confab speaker" (p. 1); "Nisei drowns trying to rescue youngster" (p. 3); "Over 6,000 immigrants from Japan admitted during 1957" (p. 8) Starting in No. 13, the volume number in the header …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 10 (September 2, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-36)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 10 (September 2, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-36)
Select article titles: "Japanese in Hawaii celebrate 75th anniv. Of 1st emigration; recall roll of Ben Franklin's descendant in Japan in 1860-70s" (p.1); "Washington State Congressional Group Endorses Repeal Anti-Alien Land Law" (p. 6)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 1 (July 1, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-27)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 1 (July 1, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-27)
Select article titles: "League plans definitive Issei history" (p.1); "Visiting novelist from Japan compares 'children of setting sun' with U.S. beatniks" (p.6); "78-year-old Issei among few survivors of first shipload of Japanese to Hawaii" (p.7); "'Japanese go home' incidents reported by Nisei newspaperman in wake of Eisenhower's visit to Japan being postponed" (p.8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 50, No. 12 (March 18, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-12)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 50, No. 12 (March 18, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-12)
Select article titles: "Eisenhower message highlights meeting of 250 naturalized Issei in Los Angeles" (p.1); "Over 5,000 Japanese Immigrants admitted last year into U.S." (p. 8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 53, No. 21 (November 24, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-47)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 53, No. 21 (November 24, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-47)
Selected article titles: "42 Restaurants Along Hwy. 40 Ends Race Bias" (pp. 1, 3), "150 Fresno Area Issei Honored by JACL, Hear Yoshimura Report on 'Issei Story'" (p. 1), "'How Much Nipponese Culture Should We Teach Children?' Revives Memories of Roaring '20 Days of Yesler Way Hall" (p. 3), and "Adopted Children from Japan Picking Up …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 54, No. 5 (February 2, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-5)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 54, No. 5 (February 2, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-5)
Selected article titles: "PSWDC Chapter Clinic Expected to Be Among Best" (p.1), "Revised Fair Housing Bill for San Fancisco City Presented" (p.1), "1942 Emergency Meeting" (p.2), "New Canadian Immigration Policy Removing Some Color Bars Adopted, Seek Quality Instead of Quantity-JCCA Not 'Sold'" (p.3), "Oregon State Senator Urges Nisei to Pass Wartime Evacuation Experiences to Sansei" (p.3), …
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