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            "title": "Japanese Latin Americans",
            "description": "During World War II, 2,264 Latin Americans of Japanese ancestry were forcibly deported from their countries of residence and taken to the U.S. where they were placed in internment camps in order to be exchanged for Americans held by Japanese forces. Some 80 percent of the internees were Japanese Peruvians; the rest came from various Pacific-facing countries from Mexico to Chile. At the conclusion of the war, most of the interned Japanese Latin Americans were forced to leave the U.S. However, since many were initially barred from returning to their home countries, more than 900 Japanese Latin Americans were deported to war-devastated Japan. Over 350 Japanese Latin Americans remained in the U.S. and fought deportation in the courts. Eventually, about 100 managed to gain reentry to their home countries in Latin America. It was not until 1952 that those who stayed were allowed to begin the process of becoming U.S. permanent residents. Many later became U.S. citizens.",
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            "title": "Gidra",
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            "title": "\"Yellow Peril\"",
            "description": "\"Yellow peril\" was a term used by anti-Japanese movement agitators in the early 1900s to describe the \"threat\" of Japanese immigration as a precursor to a Japanese invasion of the United States. Among the many groups and individuals who propagated the \"yellow peril\" myth were William Randolph Hearst's newspapers, which convinced many Californians during the early 1900s that a Japanese invasion was imminent.",
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            "path": "Race and racism: \"Yellow Peril\""
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            "term_id": 392,
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            "title": "Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC)",
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            "path": "Redress and reparations: Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC)"
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            "title": "Legal cases/coram nobis cases",
            "description": "Coram nobis cases refer to the 1980s attempt to reverse the World War II-era convictions of Gordon Hirabayashi, Fred Korematsu and Minoru Yasui, who challenged the constitutionality of the curfew and exclusion orders. The Supreme Court had upheld their convictions on the basis of military necessity. In the early 1980s, researcher Aiko Yoshinaga Herzig and legal historian Peter Irons discovered declassified documents verifying that the government had withheld information showing that there was no military necessity in the forced removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans. Soon after, legal teams were assembled and identical coram nobis petitions were filed in three separate federal district courts on behalf of Hirabayashi, Korematsu, and Yasui. All three wartime convictions were subsequently vacated.",
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        {
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            "title": "Receiving redress checks and apology",
            "description": "In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed into law the Civil Liberties Act, which, among other things, mandated an official apology from the government and monetary payments to Japanese Americans incarcerated during World War II. On October 9, 1990, more than two years after the passage of the bill, the first of the redress payments were made in a formal ceremony to elderly issei survivors in Washington, D.C. Similar ceremonies were held in cities across the country. While few of those who were incarcerated feel that the government's apology erases what was done, many believe that a formal admission of wrongdoing helped resolve feelings of shame and corrected misperceptions held by the larger society.",
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            "path": "Redress and reparations: Receiving redress checks and apology",
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            "title": "Camp pilgrimages",
            "description": "Annual pilgrimages to the sites of former camps have become important events in the Japanese American community. They are an opportunity for former camp inmates to visit places that dramatically affected their lives, as well as a way for younger generations to learn the history of the Japanese American incarceration. Often the pilgrimages last for a few days and include workshops, tours of the former campsites, and memorial services to honor those who died while incarcerated.",
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            "path": "Reflections on the past: Camp pilgrimages"
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    ]
}