OBJECT CHILDREN DOCS

s - sort
n - number of results AKA page size (limit)
p - page (offset)

GET /api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000/children/
HTTP 200 OK
Allow: OPTIONS, GET
Content-Type: application/json
Vary: Accept

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            "id": "ddr-densho-1000-1",
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            "links": {
                "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-1/",
                "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-1/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-agene-01-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-agene-01-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Gene Akutsu Interview I",
            "description": "Nisei male. Born September 23, 1925, in Seattle, Washington. Spent prewar childhood in Seattle's Nihonmachi. Incarcerated at Puyallup Assembly Center, Washington, and Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. Refused to participate in draft, imprisoned at McNeil Island Penitentiary, Washington, for resisting the draft. Resettled in Seattle. Mr. Akutsu passed away on October 6, 2011.",
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            "extent": "02:47:34",
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        {
            "id": "ddr-densho-1000-2",
            "model": "entity",
            "links": {
                "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-2/",
                "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-2/",
                "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-ajim-01-a.jpg",
                "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-ajim-01-a.jpg"
            },
            "title": "Jim Akutsu Interview",
            "description": "Nisei male. Born 1920 in Seattle, Washington. Incarcerated at Puyallup Assembly Center, Washington, and Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. Resisted draft, with the rationale that the U.S. government had classified him 4-C, an enemy alien, and he was therefore under no obligation to serve. Imprisoned at McNeil Island Penitentiary, Washington. Vocal critic of JACL. Resettled in Seattle, Washington. Thought by some to be the model for the main character in John Okada's No-No Boy. Mr. Akutsu died in 1998.

(Interview was conducted over two days because of delays caused by technical difficulties.)", "format": "vh", "role": "", "signature_id": "denshovh-ajim-01", "sort": 1, "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-ajim-01]", "extent": "03:55:15", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-3", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-3/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-3/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-aterry_g-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-aterry_g-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Terry Aratani - Fred Matsumura - Kenneth Okuma - Henry Bruno Yamada Interview", "description": "This interview centers on these individuals' military service during WWII as members of I Company, part of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, an all-Japanese American fighting unit and one of the most highly decorated military units in U.S. history. During this interview they discuss their experiences training at Camp Shelby, Mississippi and fighting in Europe during such battles as battle of the \"Lost Battalion.\" They also explore the importance of their enduring camaraderie, evident in their frequent reunions over the past fifty years. Also mentioned is Shiro Kashino, a staff sergeant in the 442nd wrongly court-martialed after a scuffle in a bar in which a military police officer was struck by one of Kashino's men. Although Kashino's involvement in the scuffle had been limited to trying to break up the fight, he spent the rest of the war in the stockade -- released only to fight in battles.

(This interview was conducted at the 1998 Americans of Japanese Ancestry Veterans National Convention, held in Honolulu, Hawaii. Because of the full conference schedule, interviews conducted at the reunion were generally shorter in length than the typical Densho interview. Kari Hiraoka, one of the interviewers, is Shiro and Louise Kashino's daughter.)", "format": "vh", "role": "", "signature_id": "denshovh-aterry_g-01", "sort": 1, "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-aterry_g-01]", "extent": "00:52:02", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-4", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-4/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-4/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-byone-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-byone-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Yone Bartholomew Interview I", "description": "Nisei female. Born 1906 in Bedderavia, California. Was given for adoption by her parents to a couple who could not have children of their own. Grew up on family farm, was one of the oldest Nisei in the Santa Barbara area of California. Incarcerated at Puyallup Assembly Center, Washington, and Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. Widow of Clarence Arai, lawyer and key figure in founding of the JACL. Discusses childhood and memories of being married to Clarence during the turbulent war years. After the war, supported the family and cared for ailing Clarence until his death in 1964. Remarried to George Bartholomew in 1978. Passed away in 2004.", "format": "vh", "role": "", "signature_id": "denshovh-byone-01", "sort": 1, "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-byone-01]", "extent": "01:15:39", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-5", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-5/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-5/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-byone-02-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-byone-02-a.jpg" }, "title": "Yone Bartholomew Interview II", "description": "Nisei female. Born 1906 in Bedderavia, California. Was given for adoption by her parents to a couple who could not have children of their own. Grew up on family farm, was one of the oldest Nisei in the Santa Barbara area of California. Incarcerated at Puyallup Assembly Center, Washington, and Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. Widow of Clarence Arai, lawyer and key figure in founding of the JACL. Discusses childhood and memories of being married to Clarence during the turbulent war years. After the war, supported the family and cared for ailing Clarence until his death in 1964. Remarried to George Bartholomew in 1978. Passed away in 2004.", "format": "vh", "role": "", "signature_id": "denshovh-byone-02", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-byone-02]", "extent": "01:56:23", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-6", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-6/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-6/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-esue-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-esue-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Sue K. Embrey Interview", "description": "Nisei female. Born January 6, 1923, in Los Angeles, California. During World War II, incarcerated at Manzanar concentration camp. Wrote for Manzanar Free Press while incarcerated. Resettled during World War II in Madison, Wisconsin, and Chicago, Illinois. Returned to Los Angeles, California, in 1948. Founding member of Nisei Progressives and the Manzanar Committee. Ms. Embrey passed away on May 15, 2006.

(This interview was conducted at the Voices of Japanese American Redress Conference, held on the UCLA campus and sponsored by the UCLA Asian American Studies Center and the UCLA School of Public Policy and Social Research. Because of the full conference schedule, our interviews were limited to one hour. The interviews therefore focused primarily on a single topic, namely, the narrator's role in the redress movement.)", "format": "vh", "role": "", "signature_id": "denshovh-esue-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-esue-01]", "extent": "00:57:30", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-7", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-7/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-7/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-fgeorge-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-fgeorge-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "George Fugami Interview", "description": "Kibei male. Born 1915 in Portland, Oregon. Sent with siblings to be educated in Japan when ten years old. Returned to the United States in 1935. During World War II, was incarcerated at Portland Assembly Center, Oregon, and Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. Active in Seattle's postwar Japanese American community as a member and past president of the First Hill Lions Club; past president of the Atlantic Street Center, past president of Franklin High School Band PTA, past zone chairman of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) and past JACL district governor, area 19-B. Discusses childhood memories of Japan and Japanese attitudes and values.", "format": "vh", "signature_id": "denshovh-fgeorge-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-fgeorge-01]", "role": "", "extent": "01:56:53", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-8", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-8/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-8/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-ffrank-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-ffrank-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Frank S. Fujii Interview", "description": "Nisei male. Born 1930 in Seattle, Washington. Grew up in Jackson Street neighborhood in Seattle, Washington. Incarcerated at Puyallup Assembly Center, Washington, and Tule Lake concentration camp, California. Resettled in Seattle. Former teacher and varsity basketball coach at Seattle's Franklin High School and administrator at Seattle Central Community College.

(This interview was conducted over two days due to electrical problems. The majority of the interview was completed on the second day, September 5.)", "format": "vh", "signature_id": "denshovh-ffrank-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-ffrank-01]", "role": "", "extent": "02:41:36", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-9", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-9/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-9/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-ffrancis-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-ffrancis-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Francis Mas Fukuhara Interview", "description": "Nisei male. Born January 30, 1925, in Seattle, Washington. Spent prewar years in Seattle's Nihonmachi/Yesler Terrace area. Incarcerated at Puyallup Assembly Center, Washington, and Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. Drafted into the Military Intelligence Service (MIS). Postwar commander of Nisei Veterans Committee (NVC) in 1988 and 1989.", "format": "vh", "signature_id": "denshovh-ffrancis-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-ffrancis-01]", "role": "", "extent": "02:30:44", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-10", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-10/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-10/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-gfumiko-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-gfumiko-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Fumiko Uyeda Groves Interview", "description": "Nisei female. Born 1933 in Seattle, Washington. Parents operated a store in the Sanitary Market (now known as the Pike Place Market). Father was very active in kenjinkai activities, both before and after the war. Spent prewar childhood in and among Seattle's Japanese American community. Incarcerated at Puyallup Assembly Center, Washington, and Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. One of the first Japanese American families to return to Seattle after the war.", "format": "vh", "role": "", "signature_id": "denshovh-gfumiko-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-gfumiko-01]", "extent": "02:51:15", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-11", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-11/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-11/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hjunkoh-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hjunkoh-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Junkoh Harui Interview", "description": "Nisei male born June 23, 1933, in Bainbridge Island, Washington. His family built and operated Bainbridge Gardens, 27 acres of meticulously landscaped property, with a nursery, grocery store and gas station. At the onset of World War II, family moved to Moses Lake to avoid being incarcerated where they farmed and lived amidst a fairly hostile larger community. Following the war, they returned to Bainbridge Island to find most of their business and property ruined from neglect and pilfering. His parents worked to rebuild it, while Mr. Harui began his own floral shop and landscape business. Eventually, Mr. Harui returned to Bainbridge Gardens and helped restore it to a thriving nursery and testimony to his family's perseverance. Mr. Harui passed away on October 19, 2008.

(This interview was done outdoors in the Bainbridge Gardens Nursery which resulted in increased background noise and frequent interruptions by the business P.A. system.)", "format": "vh", "signature_id": "denshovh-hjunkoh-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-hjunkoh-01]", "role": "", "extent": "01:55:07", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-12", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-12/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-12/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hmitsuko-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hmitsuko-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Mitsuko Hashiguchi Interview", "description": "Nisei female. Born 1921 in Bellevue, Washington. Raised on a Bellevue farm, married and had a child before being incarcerated at Pinedale Assembly Center, California; Tule Lake concentration camp, California; and Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. Discusses the Japanese American community in Bellevue before and after World War II.", "format": "vh", "role": "", "signature_id": "denshovh-hmitsuko-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-hmitsuko-01]", "extent": "02:34:29", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-13", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-13/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-13/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hsusan-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hsusan-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Susan Hayase Interview", "description": "Sansei female. Member of San Jose Nihonmachi Outreach Committee (NOC) and National Coalition for Redress/Reparations (NCRR). Helped recruit individuals to testify during San Francisco hearings for the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Citizens (CWRIC) and organized support for redress movement at grassroots level.

(This interview was conducted at the Voices of Japanese American Redress Conference, held on the UCLA campus and sponsored by the UCLA Asian American Studies Center and the UCLA School of Public Policy and Social Research. Because of the full conference schedule, our interviews were limited to one hour. The interviews therefore focused primarily on a single topic, namely, the narrator's role in the redress movement.)", "format": "vh", "role": "", "signature_id": "denshovh-hsusan-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-hsusan-01]", "extent": "00:44:46", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-14", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-14/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-14/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hseichi-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hseichi-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Seichi Hayashida Interview", "description": "Nisei male. Born 1919 in Seattle, Washington. Grew up in a Japanese American farming community in Bellevue, Washington. Incarcerated at Pinedale Assembly Center and Tule Lake concentration camp, both in California, and at Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. Longtime member and supporter of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL).", "format": "vh", "signature_id": "denshovh-hseichi-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-hseichi-01]", "role": "", "extent": "03:01:17", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-15", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-15/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-15/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hfumiko-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hfumiko-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Fumiko Hayashida Interview", "description": "Nisei female. Born January 21, 1911, in Winslow, Washington. Grew up in Japan and the Fletcher's Bay area of Bainbridge Island, Washington. Member of the first group of Japanese Americans to be forcibly removed from their homes and incarcerated. Incarcerated at Manzanar concentration camp, California, and Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho, while pregnant and caring for two small children. Subject of famous photo of a mother carrying sleeping child wearing evacuation tags.", "format": "vh", "signature_id": "denshovh-hfumiko-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-hfumiko-01]", "role": "", "extent": "01:54:38", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-16", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-16/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-16/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-haiko-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-haiko-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Aiko Herzig-Yoshinaga Interview I", "description": "Nisei female. Born August 5, 1924, in Sacramento, California. Grew up in Sacramento and Los Angeles. During World War II, removed to the Manzanar concentration camp, California, and transferred to the Jerome concentration camp, Arkansas. Washington representative and researcher for National Council for Japanese American Redress (NCJAR) and primary archival researcher for Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC), the three coram nobis cases. Consultant to the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History exhibition. \"A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the United States Constitution\"; and consultant for the Justice Department's Office of Redress Administration.

(This interview was conducted at the Voices of Japanese American Redress Conference, held on the UCLA campus and sponsored by the UCLA Asian American Studies Center and the UCLA School of Public Policy and Social Research. Because of the full conference schedule, our interviews were limited to one hour. The interviews therefore focused primarily on a single topic, namely, the narrator's role in the redress movement.)", "format": "vh", "signature_id": "denshovh-haiko-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-haiko-01]", "role": "", "extent": "00:55:52", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-17", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-17/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-17/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hgordon-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hgordon-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Gordon Hirabayashi Interview I", "description": "Nisei male. Born April 23, 1918, in Seattle, Washington. Spent most of his childhood in Thomas, Washington, where his parents were part of a Christian farming co-op. Attended the University of Washington where he was active in the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), the conscientious objector movement, and became a Quaker. At the outbreak of World War II, he was one of only a handful of individuals to challenge the curfew and removal orders being enforced against Japanese on the West Coast, citing \"Christian principles,\" and asserting \"a duty to maintain the democratic standards for which this nation lives.\" He turned himself in to the FBI, was found guilty, and served time for violating the curfew order, and failing to report for \"evacuation.\" While serving time for this conviction, Gordon was served with a draft notice and again, refused to comply. He subsequently served another period of time as a draft resister. In 1943 the Supreme Court upheld his convictions. Some forty years postwar, in 1986, his case was reopened and his convictions surrounding the incarceration were vacated by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, arguing in part that, \"racial bias was the cornerstone of the internment orders.\" Gordon Hirabayashi passed away in January of 2012.", "format": "vh", "signature_id": "denshovh-hgordon-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-hgordon-01]", "role": "", "extent": "02:53:51", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000", "sort": 1 }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-18", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-18/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-18/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hgordon-02-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hgordon-02-a.jpg" }, "title": "Gordon Hirabayashi Interview II", "description": "Nisei male. Born April 23, 1918, in Seattle, Washington. Spent most of his childhood in Thomas, Washington, where his parents were part of a Christian farming co-op. Attended the University of Washington where he was active in the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), the conscientious objector movement, and became a Quaker. At the outbreak of World War II, he was one of only a handful of individuals to challenge the curfew and removal orders being enforced against Japanese on the West Coast, citing \"Christian principles,\" and asserting \"a duty to maintain the democratic standards for which this nation lives.\" He turned himself in to the FBI, was found guilty, and served time for violating the curfew order, and failing to report for \"evacuation.\" While serving time for this conviction, Gordon was served with a draft notice and again, refused to comply. He subsequently served another period of time as a draft resister. In 1943 the Supreme Court upheld his convictions. Some forty years postwar, in 1986, his case was reopened and his convictions surrounding the incarceration were vacated by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, arguing in part that, \"racial bias was the cornerstone of the internment orders.\" Gordon Hirabayashi passed away in January of 2012.", "format": "vh", "role": "", "signature_id": "denshovh-hgordon-02", "sort": 1, "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-hgordon-02]", "extent": "02:31:45", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-19", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-19/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-19/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hgordon-03-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hgordon-03-a.jpg" }, "title": "Gordon Hirabayashi Interview III", "description": "Nisei male. Born April 23, 1918, in Seattle, Washington. Spent most of his childhood in Thomas, Washington, where his parents were part of a Christian farming co-op. Attended the University of Washington where he was active in the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), the conscientious objector movement, and became a Quaker. At the outbreak of World War II, he was one of only a handful of individuals to challenge the curfew and removal orders being enforced against Japanese on the West Coast, citing \"Christian principles,\" and asserting \"a duty to maintain the democratic standards for which this nation lives.\" He turned himself in to the FBI, was found guilty, and served time for violating the curfew order, and failing to report for \"evacuation.\" While serving time for this conviction, Gordon was served with a draft notice and again, refused to comply. He subsequently served another period of time as a draft resister. In 1943 the Supreme Court upheld his convictions. Some forty years postwar, in 1986, his case was reopened and his convictions surrounding the incarceration were vacated by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, arguing in part that, \"racial bias was the cornerstone of the internment orders.\" Gordon Hirabayashi passed away in January of 2012.", "format": "vh", "role": "", "signature_id": "denshovh-hgordon-03", "sort": 1, "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-hgordon-03]", "extent": "01:21:56", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-20", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-20/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-20/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hgordon-04-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hgordon-04-a.jpg" }, "title": "Gordon Hirabayashi Interview IV", "description": "Nisei male. Born April 23, 1918, in Seattle, Washington. Spent most of his childhood in Thomas, Washington, where his parents were part of a Christian farming co-op. Attended the University of Washington where he was active in the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), the conscientious objector movement, and became a Quaker. At the outbreak of World War II, he was one of only a handful of individuals to challenge the curfew and removal orders being enforced against Japanese on the West Coast, citing \"Christian principles,\" and asserting \"a duty to maintain the democratic standards for which this nation lives.\" He turned himself in to the FBI, was found guilty, and served time for violating the curfew order, and failing to report for \"evacuation.\" While serving time for this conviction, Gordon was served with a draft notice and again, refused to comply. He subsequently served another period of time as a draft resister. In 1943 the Supreme Court upheld his convictions. Some forty years postwar, in 1986, his case was reopened and his convictions surrounding the incarceration were vacated by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, arguing in part that, \"racial bias was the cornerstone of the internment orders.\" Gordon Hirabayashi passed away in January of 2012.", "format": "vh", "role": "", "signature_id": "denshovh-hgordon-04", "sort": 1, "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-hgordon-04]", "extent": "01:49:44", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-21", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-21/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-21/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hfred-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hfred-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Fred Hirasuna Interview", "description": "Nisei male. Born February 11, 1908, in Lodi, California. Resettled voluntarily to Mankato, Minnesota, prior to mass removal. Resettled in central California in 1947. Member of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) since 1929. Became active in redress movement as fundraiser and lobbyist for Central California District Council of JACL. Mr. Hirasuna passed away on February 12, 2004.

(This interview was conducted at the Voices of Japanese American Redress Conference, held on the UCLA campus and sponsored by the UCLA Asian American Studies Center and the UCLA School of Public Policy and Social Research. Because of the full conference schedule, our interviews were limited to one hour. The interviews therefore focused primarily on a single topic, namely, the narrator's role in the redress movement.)", "format": "vh", "role": "", "signature_id": "denshovh-hfred-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-hfred-01]", "extent": "00:41:44", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-22", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-22/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-22/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hmary-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hmary-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Mary Hirata Interview", "description": "Nisei female. Born 1926, in Wenatchee, Washington. Grew up in Wenatchee, moved to Seattle with family in 1938. Incarcerated at Puyallup Assembly Center, Washington, and Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho. Resettled during World War II in Pocatello, Idaho. Returned to Seattle after World War II.", "format": "vh", "signature_id": "denshovh-hmary-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-hmary-01]", "role": "", "extent": "01:48:42", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-23", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-23/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-23/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-htokio_g-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-htokio_g-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Tokio Hirotaka - Toshio Ito - Joe Matsuzawa Interview", "description": "Mr. Hirotaka was born in 1910, Mr. Matsuzawa was born in 1913, and Mr. Ito in 1922. All three are Nisei males, born and raised in Bellevue, Washington. They and their families were incarcerated at Pinedale Assembly Center, California, and Tule Lake concentration camp, California. Prior to the war, their families were part of a Japanese American \"Eastside\" community that cleared and farmed a large portion of what is now the Bellevue-Kirkland-Redmond area. In this group interview, they discuss their memories of farming, the Eastside's Japanese American community, and the war years.", "format": "vh", "role": "", "signature_id": "denshovh-htokio_g-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-htokio_g-01]", "extent": "03:42:57", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-24", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-24/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-24/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hmutsu-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-hmutsu-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Mutsu Homma Interview", "description": "Issei female. Born June 19, 1911, in Tono City, Iwate-ken, Japan. Immigrated to the United States in 1929. Incarcerated at Santa Anita Assembly Center, California, and Amache concentration camp, Colorado. Father established and ministered the first Western-style Christian church in Tono City. Husband was assigned to the Santa Anita Assembly Center as the official head dentist, then passed away in Amache concentration camp. Resettled in Seattle. Ms. Homma passed away July 20, 2004.", "format": "vh", "signature_id": "denshovh-hmutsu-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-hmutsu-01]", "role": "", "extent": "03:06:15", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" }, { "id": "ddr-densho-1000-25", "model": "entity", "links": { "html": "http://ddr.densho.org/ddr-densho-1000-25/", "json": "http://ddr.densho.org/api/0.2/ddr-densho-1000-25/", "img": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-htakashi_g-01-a.jpg", "thumb": "https://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr-densho-1000/denshovh-htakashi_g-01-a.jpg" }, "title": "Takashi Hori - Yoshito Mizuta - Elmer Tazuma Interview", "description": "Mr. Hori was born in 1918, Mr. Mizuta was born in 1914, and Mr. Tazuma was born in 1916. Both Mr. Hori and Mr. Mizuta are Nisei, and Mr. Tazuma is an Issei. All three grew up in Seattle and owned hotels in the International District. In this group interview, they discuss Japanese American hotel ownership from the early to mid-1900s and the role of the hotel association in the Japanese American community.", "format": "vh", "role": "", "signature_id": "denshovh-htakashi_g-01", "alternate_id": "[denshouid: denshovh-htakashi_g-01]", "extent": "01:41:03", "collection_id": "ddr-densho-1000" } ] }